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Toxins 2017, 9(2), 71; doi:10.3390/toxins9020071

Fungal Ribotoxins: A Review of Potential Biotechnological Applications

1
Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular I, Facultad de Química, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
3
Departamento de Estructura de Macromoléculas, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Darwin 3, 28049 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nilgun E. Tumer
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4423 KB, uploaded 21 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Fungi establish a complex network of biological interactions with other organisms in nature. In many cases, these involve the production of toxins for survival or colonization purposes. Among these toxins, ribotoxins stand out as promising candidates for their use in biotechnological applications. They constitute a group of highly specific extracellular ribonucleases that target a universally conserved sequence of RNA in the ribosome, the sarcin-ricin loop. The detailed molecular study of this family of toxic proteins over the past decades has highlighted their potential in applied research. Remarkable examples would be the recent studies in the field of cancer research with promising results involving ribotoxin-based immunotoxins. On the other hand, some ribotoxin-producer fungi have already been studied in the control of insect pests. The recent role of ribotoxins as insecticides could allow their employment in formulas and even as baculovirus-based biopesticides. Moreover, considering the important role of their target in the ribosome, they can be used as tools to study how ribosome biogenesis is regulated and, eventually, may contribute to a better understanding of some ribosomopathies. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal ribotoxins; ribonuclease (RNase); ribosome; sarcin-ricin loop (SRL); insecticide; biopesticide; immunotoxin; cancer; ribosomopathies fungal ribotoxins; ribonuclease (RNase); ribosome; sarcin-ricin loop (SRL); insecticide; biopesticide; immunotoxin; cancer; ribosomopathies
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Olombrada, M.; Lázaro-Gorines, R.; López-Rodríguez, J.C.; Martínez-del-Pozo, Á.; Oñaderra, M.; Maestro-López, M.; Lacadena, J.; Gavilanes, J.G.; García-Ortega, L. Fungal Ribotoxins: A Review of Potential Biotechnological Applications. Toxins 2017, 9, 71.

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