Next Article in Journal
Development of Colloidal Gold‐Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Rapid Qualitative and SemiQuantitative Analysis of Ustiloxins A and B in Rice Samples
Next Article in Special Issue
Multiple Stressors at the Land-Sea Interface: Cyanotoxins at the Land-Sea Interface in the Southern California Bight
Previous Article in Journal
Antivenom Evaluation by Electrophysiological Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Acute Toxicities of the Saxitoxin Congeners Gonyautoxin 5, Gonyautoxin 6, Decarbamoyl Gonyautoxin 2&3, Decarbamoyl Neosaxitoxin, C-1&2 and C-3&4 to Mice by Various Routes of Administration
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceCommunication
Toxins 2017, 9(3), 75; doi:10.3390/toxins9030075

Acute Oral Toxicity of Tetrodotoxin in Mice: Determination of Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) and No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL)

1
Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo 27002, Spain
2
Laboratorio CIFGA S.A., Plaza Santo Domingo 20-5°, Lugo 27001, Spain
3
Departamento de Fisiologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo 27002, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vítor Vasconcelos
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [567 KB, uploaded 2 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is starting to appear in molluscs from the European waters and is a hazard to seafood consumers. This toxin blocks sodium channels resulting in neuromuscular paralysis and even death. As a part of the risk assessment process leading to a safe seafood level for TTX, oral toxicity data are required. In this study, a 4-level Up and Down Procedure was designed in order to determine for the first time the oral lethal dose 50 (LD50) and the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) in mice by using an accurate well-characterized TTX standard. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute oral toxicity; European molluscs; lethal dose 50 (LD50); No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL); risk assessment; tetrodotoxin acute oral toxicity; European molluscs; lethal dose 50 (LD50); No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL); risk assessment; tetrodotoxin
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Abal, P.; Louzao, M.C.; Antelo, A.; Alvarez, M.; Cagide, E.; Vilariño, N.; Vieytes, M.R.; Botana, L.M. Acute Oral Toxicity of Tetrodotoxin in Mice: Determination of Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) and No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL). Toxins 2017, 9, 75.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top