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Toxins 2017, 9(2), 62; doi:10.3390/toxins9020062

Variable Cyanobacterial Toxin and Metabolite Profiles across Six Eutrophic Lakes of Differing Physiochemical Characteristics

1
Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin‐Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA
2
School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin‐Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53204, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract

Future sustainability of freshwater resources is seriously threatened due to the presence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms, and yet, the number, extent, and distribution of most cyanobacterial toxins—including “emerging” toxins and other bioactive compounds—are poorly understood. We measured 15 cyanobacterial compounds—including four microcystins (MC), saxitoxin (SXT), cylindrospermopsin (CYL), anatoxin-a (ATX) and homo-anatoxin-a (hATX), two anabaenopeptins (Apt), three cyanopeptolins (Cpt), microginin (Mgn), and nodularin (NOD)—in six freshwater lakes that regularly experience noxious cHABs. MC, a human liver toxin, was present in all six lakes and was detected in 80% of all samples. Similarly, Apt, Cpt, and Mgn were detected in all lakes in roughly 86%, 50%, and 35% of all samples, respectively. Despite being a notable brackish water toxin, NOD was detected in the two shallowest lakes—Wingra (4.3 m) and Koshkonong (2.1 m). All compounds were highly variable temporally, and spatially. Metabolite profiles were significantly different between lakes suggesting lake characteristics influenced the cyanobacterial community and/or metabolite production. Understanding how cyanobacterial toxins are distributed across eutrophic lakes may shed light onto the ecological function of these metabolites, provide valuable information for their remediation and removal, and aid in the protection of public health. View Full-Text
Keywords: microcystin;  anabaenopeptin;  cyanopeptolin;  nodularin;  microginin;  anatoxin;  cylindrospermopsin; saxitoxin microcystin;  anabaenopeptin;  cyanopeptolin;  nodularin;  microginin;  anatoxin;  cylindrospermopsin; saxitoxin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Beversdorf, L.J.; Weirich, C.A.; Bartlett, S.L.; Miller, T.R. Variable Cyanobacterial Toxin and Metabolite Profiles across Six Eutrophic Lakes of Differing Physiochemical Characteristics. Toxins 2017, 9, 62.

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