Next Article in Journal
Toxin Release of Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa after Exposure to Typical Tetracycline Antibiotic Contaminants
Next Article in Special Issue
Identification of the Anti-Aflatoxinogenic Activity of Micromeria graeca and Elucidation of Its Molecular Mechanism in Aspergillus flavus
Previous Article in Journal
Fungal Ribotoxins: A Review of Potential Biotechnological Applications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Patulin Degradation by the Biocontrol Yeast Sporobolomyces sp. Is an Inducible Process
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2017, 9(2), 72; doi:10.3390/toxins9020072

Static Hot Air and Infrared Rays Roasting are Efficient Methods for Aflatoxin Decontamination on Hazelnuts

1
Agroinnova—Centre of Competence for the Innovation in the Agro-Environmental Sector, University of Turin, Largo Paolo Braccini, 2 Grugliasco, Turin 10095, Italy
2
DISAFA—Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Science, University of Turin, Largo Paolo Braccini, 2 Grugliasco, Turin 10095, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ting Zhou
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [956 KB, uploaded 21 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by members of Aspergillus Section Flavi that are dangerous to humans and animals. Nuts can be potentially contaminated with aflatoxins, often over the legal threshold. Food processes, including roasting, may have different effects on mycotoxins, and high temperatures have proven to be very effective in the reduction of mycotoxins. In this work, two different roasting methods—traditional static hot air roasting and infra-red rays roasting—were applied and compared for the detoxification of hazelnuts from Italy and Turkey. At the temperature of 140 °C for 40 min of exposure, detoxification was effective for both roasting techniques. Residual aflatoxins after infra-red rays treatments were lower compared to static hot air roasting. On Italian hazelnuts, residual aflatoxins were lower than 5%, while for Turkish hazelnuts they were lower than 15% after 40 min of exposure to an infra-red rays roaster. After roasting, the perisperm was detached from the nuts and analyzed for aflatoxin contents. Residual aflatoxins in the perisperm ranged from 80% up to 100%. After roasting, the lipid profile and the nutritional quality of hazelnuts were not affected. Fatty acid methyl esters analyses showed a similar composition for Italian and Turkish hazelnuts. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; Aspergillus flavus; Corylus avellana; fatty acids; thermal treatment aflatoxins; Aspergillus flavus; Corylus avellana; fatty acids; thermal treatment
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Siciliano, I.; Dal Bello, B.; Zeppa, G.; Spadaro, D.; Gullino, M.L. Static Hot Air and Infrared Rays Roasting are Efficient Methods for Aflatoxin Decontamination on Hazelnuts. Toxins 2017, 9, 72.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top