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Toxins 2017, 9(2), 61; doi:10.3390/toxins9020061

Patulin Degradation by the Biocontrol Yeast Sporobolomyces sp. Is an Inducible Process

1
Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Food Sciences, Università degli Studi del Molise, via Francesco de Sanctis, 86100 Campobasso, Italy
2
Department of Organic Chemistry, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Cádiz), Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ting Zhou
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
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Abstract

Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium expansum and a common contaminant of pome fruits and their derived products worldwide. It is considered to be mutagenic, genotoxic, immunotoxic, teratogenic and cytotoxic, and the development of strategies to reduce this contamination is an active field of research. We previously reported that Sporobolomyces sp. is able to degrade patulin and convert it into the breakdown products desoxypatulinic acid and ascladiol, both of which were found to be less toxic than patulin. The specific aim of this study was the evaluation of the triggering of the mechanisms involved in patulin resistance and degradation by Sporobolomyces sp. Cells pre-incubated in the presence of a low patulin concentration showed a higher resistance to patulin toxicity and a faster kinetics of degradation. Similarly, patulin degradation was faster when crude intracellular protein extracts of Sporobolomyces sp. were prepared from cells pre-treated with the mycotoxin, indicating the induction of the mechanisms involved in the resistance and degradation of the mycotoxin by Sporobolomyces sp. This study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms of patulin resistance and degradation by Sporobolomyces sp., which is an essential prerequisite for developing an industrial approach aiming at the production of patulin-free products. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sporobolomyces sp. IAM 13481; microbial patulin degradation; desoxypatulinic acid; ascladiol Sporobolomyces sp. IAM 13481; microbial patulin degradation; desoxypatulinic acid; ascladiol
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Ianiri, G.; Pinedo, C.; Fratianni, A.; Panfili, G.; Castoria, R. Patulin Degradation by the Biocontrol Yeast Sporobolomyces sp. Is an Inducible Process. Toxins 2017, 9, 61.

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