Identification of the Anti-Aflatoxinogenic Activity of Micromeria graeca and Elucidation of Its Molecular Mechanism in Aspergillus flavus
AbstractOf all the food-contaminating mycotoxins, aflatoxins, and most notably aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), are found to be the most toxic and economically costly. Green farming is striving to replace fungicides and develop natural preventive strategies to minimize crop contamination by these toxic fungal metabolites. In this study, we demonstrated that an aqueous extract of the medicinal plant Micromeria graeca—known as hyssop—completely inhibits aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus without reducing fungal growth. The molecular inhibitory mechanism was explored by analyzing the expression of 61 genes, including 27 aflatoxin biosynthesis cluster genes and 34 secondary metabolism regulatory genes. This analysis revealed a three-fold down-regulation of aflR and aflS encoding the two internal cluster co-activators, resulting in a drastic repression of all aflatoxin biosynthesis genes. Hyssop also targeted fifteen regulatory genes, including veA and mtfA, two major global-regulating transcription factors. The effect of this extract is also linked to a transcriptomic variation of several genes required for the response to oxidative stress such as msnA, srrA, catA, cat2, sod1, mnsod, and stuA. In conclusion, hyssop inhibits AFB1 synthesis at the transcriptomic level. This aqueous extract is a promising natural-based solution to control AFB1 contamination. View Full-Text
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El Khoury, R.; Caceres, I.; Puel, O.; Bailly, S.; Atoui, A.; Oswald, I.P.; El Khoury, A.; Bailly, J.-D. Identification of the Anti-Aflatoxinogenic Activity of Micromeria graeca and Elucidation of Its Molecular Mechanism in Aspergillus flavus. Toxins 2017, 9, 87.
El Khoury R, Caceres I, Puel O, Bailly S, Atoui A, Oswald IP, El Khoury A, Bailly J-D. Identification of the Anti-Aflatoxinogenic Activity of Micromeria graeca and Elucidation of Its Molecular Mechanism in Aspergillus flavus. Toxins. 2017; 9(3):87.Chicago/Turabian Style
El Khoury, Rhoda; Caceres, Isaura; Puel, Olivier; Bailly, Sylviane; Atoui, Ali; Oswald, Isabelle P.; El Khoury, André; Bailly, Jean-Denis. 2017. "Identification of the Anti-Aflatoxinogenic Activity of Micromeria graeca and Elucidation of Its Molecular Mechanism in Aspergillus flavus." Toxins 9, no. 3: 87.
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