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Toxins 2017, 9(1), 13; doi:10.3390/toxins9010013

Variations of Growth and Toxin Yield in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii under Different Phosphorus Concentrations

1
Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, Hubei, China
2
Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Bio-Resource and Eco-Environmental Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, Guangdong, China
3
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
4
College of Life Sciences, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, Jiangxi, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Greg Boyer
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 24 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract

The bloom-forming cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, is a producer of the cytotoxic cylindrospermopsin (CYN). In this study, the growth, toxin yield, and expression of CYN biosynthesis genes of C. raciborskii were examined under varying phosphorus (P) concentrations. The results show the cell number at 0.00 and 0.01 mg·L−1 P was significantly lower than that at higher P concentrations (≥0.5 mg·L−1). The chlorophyll a content, filament length, heterocyst, and akinete numbers at P ≤ 0.05 mg·L−1 were also significantly reduced. The intracellular and extracellular CYN concentrations and the extracellular proportions increased during the culture period, and larger values were observed at higher P concentrations. Total CYN content reached 45.34–63.83 fg·cell−1 and extracellular CYN proportion reached 11.49%–20.44% at the stationary growth phase. A significantly positive correlation was observed between CYN production and cell growth rate. Three cyr genes were expressed constantly even at P-deficient conditions. The transcription of cyr genes at P-replete conditions or after P supplementation increased from 1.18-fold to 8.33-fold. In conclusion, C. raciborskii may rapidly reorganize metabolic processes as an adaptive response to environmental P fluctuations. CYN production and cyr gene expression were constitutive metabolic processes in toxic C. raciborskii. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii; cylindrospermopsin; cyr gene; inorganic phosphorus; growth rate Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii; cylindrospermopsin; cyr gene; inorganic phosphorus; growth rate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Li, X.; Li, H.; Chen, Y.; Xie, J.; Cai, F.; Li, R. Variations of Growth and Toxin Yield in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii under Different Phosphorus Concentrations. Toxins 2017, 9, 13.

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