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Toxins 2017, 9(2), 63; doi:10.3390/toxins9020063

Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON), Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1

1
Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Department of Applied Biosciences, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
Laboratory of Food Analysis, Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
Laboratory of Applied Mycology and Phenomics, Department of Applied Biosciences, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Massimo Reverberi
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
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Abstract

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON) biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are typically used. However, these techniques do not give a decisive answer about the remaining toxicity of possible biotransformation products. Hence, a bioassay using Lemna minor L. was developed. A dose–response analysis revealed significant inhibition in the growth of L. minor exposed to DON concentrations of 0.25 mg/L and higher. Concentrations above 1 mg/L were lethal for the plant. This bioassay is far more sensitive than previously described systems. The bioassay was implemented to screen microbial enrichment cultures, originating from rumen fluid, soil, digestate and activated sludge, on their biotransformation and detoxification capability of DON. The enrichment cultures originating from soil and activated sludge were capable of detoxifying and degrading 5 and 50 mg/L DON. In addition, the metabolites 3-epi-DON and the epimer of de-epoxy-DON (3-epi-DOM-1) were found as biotransformation products of both consortia. Our work provides a new valuable tool to screen microbial cultures for their detoxification capacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol (DON); Lemna minor; bioassay; biotransformation; detoxification; 3-epi-DON; 3-epi-de-epoxy-DON (3-epi-DOM-1) deoxynivalenol (DON); Lemna minor; bioassay; biotransformation; detoxification; 3-epi-DON; 3-epi-de-epoxy-DON (3-epi-DOM-1)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Vanhoutte, I.; De Mets, L.; De Boevre, M.; Uka, V.; Di Mavungu, J.D.; De Saeger, S.; De Gelder, L.; Audenaert, K. Microbial Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol (DON), Assessed via a Lemna minor L. Bioassay, through Biotransformation to 3-epi-DON and 3-epi-DOM-1. Toxins 2017, 9, 63.

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