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Toxins 2017, 9(2), 45; doi:10.3390/toxins9020045

Enniatin and Beauvericin Biosynthesis in Fusarium Species: Production Profiles and Structural Determinant Prediction

1
Institute of Sciences of Food Production, CNR, 70126 Bari, Italy
2
Institute of Crystallography, CNR, 70126 Bari, Italy
3
Department of Economics, University of Foggia, 71121 Foggia, Italy
4
Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, 66506 KS, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc Maresca
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 25 January 2017
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Abstract

Members of the fungal genus Fusarium can produce numerous secondary metabolites, including the nonribosomal mycotoxins beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENNs). Both mycotoxins are synthesized by the multifunctional enzyme enniatin synthetase (ESYN1) that contains both peptide synthetase and S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent N-methyltransferase activities. Several Fusarium species can produce ENNs, BEA or both, but the mechanism(s) enabling these differential metabolic profiles is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the primary structure of ESYN1 by sequencing esyn1 transcripts from different Fusarium species. We measured ENNs and BEA production by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and Acquity QDa mass detector (UPLC-PDA-QDa) analyses. We predicted protein structures, compared the predictions by multivariate analysis methods and found a striking correlation between BEA/ENN-producing profiles and ESYN1 three-dimensional structures. Structural differences in the β strand’s Asn789-Ala793 and His797-Asp802 portions of the amino acid adenylation domain can be used to distinguish BEA/ENN-producing Fusarium isolates from those that produce only ENN. View Full-Text
Keywords: enniatin; beauvericin; ESYN1; mycotoxins; Fusarium; homology modelling; multivariate analysis; backbone angles enniatin; beauvericin; ESYN1; mycotoxins; Fusarium; homology modelling; multivariate analysis; backbone angles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liuzzi, V.C.; Mirabelli, V.; Cimmarusti, M.T.; Haidukowski, M.; Leslie, J.F.; Logrieco, A.F.; Caliandro, R.; Fanelli, F.; Mulè, G. Enniatin and Beauvericin Biosynthesis in Fusarium Species: Production Profiles and Structural Determinant Prediction. Toxins 2017, 9, 45.

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