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Toxins 2017, 9(2), 57; doi:10.3390/toxins9020057

Optimization for the Production of Deoxynivalenoland Zearalenone by Fusarium graminearum UsingResponse Surface Methodology

1,2
,
1
,
1,2
,
1,2
,
1,2
and
1,2,*
1
Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No.12 Zhongguancun South St., Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China
2
Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Cereal Products (Beijing), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
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Abstract

Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are the most common contaminants in cereals worldwide, causing a wide range of adverse health effects on animals and humans. Many environmental factors can affect the production of these mycotoxins. Here, we have used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the Fusarium graminearum strain 29 culture conditions for maximal toxin production. Three factors, medium pH, incubation temperature and time, were optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimized conditions for DON production were pH 4.91 and an incubation temperature of 23.75 °C for 28 days, while maximal ZEN production required pH 9.00 and an incubation temperature of 15.05 °C for 28 days. The maximum levels of DON and ZEN production were 2811.17 ng/mL and 23789.70 ng/mL, respectively. Considering the total level of DON and ZEN, desirable yields of the mycotoxins were still obtained with medium pH of 6.86, an incubation temperature of 17.76 °C and a time of 28 days. The corresponding experimental values, from the validation experiments, fitted well with these predictions. This suggests that RSM could be used to optimize Fusarium mycotoxin levels, which are further purified for use as potential mycotoxin standards. Furthermore, it shows that acidic pH is a determinant for DON production, while an alkaline environment and lower temperature (approximately 15 °C) are favorable for ZEN accumulation. After extraction, separation and purification processes, the isolated mycotoxins were obtained through a simple purification process, with desirable yields, and acceptable purity. The mycotoxins could be used as potential analytical standards or chemical reagents for routine analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; deoxynivalenol; zearalenone; response surface methodology;optimization; purification Fusarium graminearum; deoxynivalenol; zearalenone; response surface methodology;optimization; purification
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Wu, L.; Qiu, L.; Zhang, H.; Sun, J.; Hu, X.; Wang, B. Optimization for the Production of Deoxynivalenoland Zearalenone by Fusarium graminearum UsingResponse Surface Methodology. Toxins 2017, 9, 57.

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