Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
A Monoclonal–Monoclonal Antibody Based Capture ELISA for Abrin
Previous Article in Journal
Animal Toxins Providing Insights into TRPV1 Activation Mechanism
Previous Article in Special Issue
Abrin Toxicity and Bioavailability after Temperature and pH Treatment
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2017, 9(10), 329; doi:10.3390/toxins9100329

Production, Characterisation and Testing of an Ovine Antitoxin against Ricin; Efficacy, Potency and Mechanisms of Action

Chemical, Biological and Radiological Division, Dstl, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JQ, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Julien Barbier and Daniel Gillet
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ribosome Inactivating Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1777 KB, uploaded 18 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

Ricin is a type II ribosome-inactivating toxin that catalytically inactivates ribosomes ultimately leading to cell death. The toxicity of ricin along with the prevalence of castor beans (its natural source) has led to its increased notoriety and incidences of nefarious use. Despite these concerns, there are no licensed therapies available for treating ricin intoxication. Here, we describe the development of a F(ab’)2 polyclonal ovine antitoxin against ricin and demonstrate the efficacy of a single, post-exposure, administration in an in vivo murine model of intoxication against aerosolised ricin. We found that a single dose of antitoxin afforded a wide window of opportunity for effective treatment with 100% protection observed in mice challenged with aerosolised ricin when given 24 h after exposure to the toxin and 75% protection when given at 30 h. Treated mice had reduced weight loss and clinical signs of intoxication compared to the untreated control group. Finally, using imaging flow cytometry, it was found that both cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking of ricin toxin to the Golgi apparatus was reduced in the presence of the antitoxin suggesting both actions can contribute to the therapeutic mechanism of a polyclonal antitoxin. Collectively, the research highlights the significant potential of the ovine F(ab’)2 antitoxin as a treatment for ricin intoxication. View Full-Text
Keywords: ricin; antibody; antitoxin; efficacy; intracellular trafficking ricin; antibody; antitoxin; efficacy; intracellular trafficking
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Whitfield, S.J.C.; Griffiths, G.D.; Jenner, D.C.; Gwyther, R.J.; Stahl, F.M.; Cork, L.J.; Holley, J.L.; Green, A.C.; Clark, G.C. Production, Characterisation and Testing of an Ovine Antitoxin against Ricin; Efficacy, Potency and Mechanisms of Action. Toxins 2017, 9, 329.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top