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Toxins 2016, 8(6), 178; doi:10.3390/toxins8060178

Venomic Analysis of the Poorly Studied Desert Coral Snake, Micrurus tschudii tschudii, Supports the 3FTx/PLA2 Dichotomy across Micrurus Venoms

1
Laboratorio de Venómica Estructural y Funcional, Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Jaime Roig 11, Valencia 46010, Spain
2
Departamento Academico de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 31, Perú
3
Instituto Nacional de Salud, Ministerio de Salud, Lima 11, Perú
4
Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose 11501, Costa Rica
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen P. Mackessy
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016 / Published: 7 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venomics, Venom Proteomics and Venom Transcriptomics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1201 KB, uploaded 7 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

The venom proteome of the poorly studied desert coral snake Micrurus tschudii tschudii was unveiled using a venomic approach, which identified ≥38 proteins belonging to only four snake venom protein families. The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) constitute, both in number of isoforms (~30) and total abundance (93.6% of the venom proteome), the major protein family of the desert coral snake venom. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s; seven isoforms, 4.1% of the venom proteome), 1–3 Kunitz-type proteins (1.6%), and 1–2 l-amino acid oxidases (LAO, 0.7%) complete the toxin arsenal of M. t. tschudii. Our results add to the growing evidence that the occurrence of two divergent venom phenotypes, i.e., 3FTx- and PLA2-predominant venom proteomes, may constitute a general trend across the cladogenesis of Micrurus. The occurrence of a similar pattern of venom phenotypic variability among true sea snake (Hydrophiinae) venoms suggests that the 3FTx/PLA2 dichotomy may be widely distributed among Elapidae venoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: Micrurus tschudii tschudii venom; venomics; snake venom proteome; three-finger toxin; snake venom phospholipase A2; mass spectrometry Micrurus tschudii tschudii venom; venomics; snake venom proteome; three-finger toxin; snake venom phospholipase A2; mass spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sanz, L.; Pla, D.; Pérez, A.; Rodríguez, Y.; Zavaleta, A.; Salas, M.; Lomonte, B.; Calvete, J.J. Venomic Analysis of the Poorly Studied Desert Coral Snake, Micrurus tschudii tschudii, Supports the 3FTx/PLA2 Dichotomy across Micrurus Venoms. Toxins 2016, 8, 178.

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