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Toxins 2016, 8(6), 177; doi:10.3390/toxins8060177

Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
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Academic Editor: Deepak Bhatnagar
Received: 21 April 2016 / Revised: 27 May 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016 / Published: 7 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Aflatoxins)
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Abstract

Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains on the esters became longer. Pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl syringates showed strong activity at 0.05 mM. Heptyl and octyl parabens, and octyl gallate also inhibited aflatoxin production as strongly as octyl syringate. Alkyl parabens and alkyl gallates inhibit the complex II activity of the mitochondrial respiration chain; thus, whether alkyl syringates inhibit complex II activity was examined. Inhibitory activities of alkyl syringates toward complex II also became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains increased. The complex II inhibitory activity of octyl syringate was comparable to that of octyl paraben and octyl gallate. These results suggest that alkyl syringates, alkyl parabens, and alkyl gallates, including commonly used food additives, are useful for aflatoxin control. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin; inhibitor; alkyl syringate; alkyl paraben; alkyl gallate; respiration; complex II aflatoxin; inhibitor; alkyl syringate; alkyl paraben; alkyl gallate; respiration; complex II
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Furukawa, T.; Iimura, K.; Kimura, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Sakuda, S. Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production. Toxins 2016, 8, 177.

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