Next Article in Journal
Molecular Characterization of Three Novel Phospholipase A2 Proteins from the Venom of Atheris chlorechis, Atheris nitschei and Atheris squamigera
Next Article in Special Issue
Transcytosis, Antitumor Activity and Toxicity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 as an Oral Administration Protein Drug
Previous Article in Journal
Response to Peter Mantle. Comments on “Mycobiota and Mycotoxins in Traditional Medicinal Seeds from China. Toxins 2015, 7, 3858-3875”—Rigour in Attributing Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis within the Genus Penicillium Occurring on Natural Agricultural Produce
Previous Article in Special Issue
Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Staphylococcus aureus
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2016, 8(6), 169; doi:10.3390/toxins8060169

Sequence Variability in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Genes seb, sec, and sed

1
Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene, Vetsuisse Faculty University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 272, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
2
National Reference Laboratory for Coagulase-Positive Staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d’Aosta, Via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Rummel
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 26 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Staphylococcus aureus Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1944 KB, uploaded 1 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins preformed by Staphylococcus aureus in food leads to staphylococcal food poisoning, the most prevalent foodborne intoxication worldwide. There are five major staphylococcal enterotoxins: SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE. While variants of these toxins have been described and were linked to specific hosts or levels or enterotoxin production, data on sequence variation is still limited. In this study, we aim to extend the knowledge on promoter and gene variants of the major enterotoxins SEB, SEC, and SED. To this end, we determined seb, sec, and sed promoter and gene sequences of a well-characterized set of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains originating from foodborne outbreaks, human infections, human nasal colonization, rabbits, and cattle. New nucleotide sequence variants were detected for all three enterotoxins and a novel amino acid sequence variant of SED was detected in a strain associated with human nasal colonization. While the seb promoter and gene sequences exhibited a high degree of variability, the sec and sed promoter and gene were more conserved. Interestingly, a truncated variant of sed was detected in all tested sed harboring rabbit strains. The generated data represents a further step towards improved understanding of strain-specific differences in enterotoxin expression and host-specific variation in enterotoxin sequences. View Full-Text
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; enterotoxin; sequence variation; seb; sec; sed; promoter Staphylococcus aureus; enterotoxin; sequence variation; seb; sec; sed; promoter
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Johler, S.; Sihto, H.-M.; Macori, G.; Stephan, R. Sequence Variability in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Genes seb, sec, and sed. Toxins 2016, 8, 169.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top