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Toxins 2016, 8(10), 294; doi:10.3390/toxins8100294

Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Based on PULCON Methodology: Application to Quantification of Invaluable Marine Toxin, Okadaic Acid

1
National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, 2-12-4 Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama 236-8648, Japan
2
Department of Marine Science and Resource, Nihon University, Kameino, Fujisawa 252-0880, Japan
3
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Chuo 3, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8563, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis M. Botana
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [795 KB, uploaded 13 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

ERETIC2 (Electronic Reference To access In vivo Concentrations 2) based on PULCON (Pulse Length–based Concentration determination) methodology is a quantitative NMR (qNMR) using an external standard. The performance of the PULCON method was assessed using maleic acid (MA). Quantification of the diarrhetic shellfish toxin and okadaic acid by PULCON was successfully consistent with that obtained by a conventional internal standard method, demonstrating that the PULCON method is useful for the quantification of invaluable marine toxins without any contaminations by an internal standard. View Full-Text
Keywords: quantitative NMR; qNMR; PULCON; ERETIC2; external standard; okadaic acid quantitative NMR; qNMR; PULCON; ERETIC2; external standard; okadaic acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Watanabe, R.; Sugai, C.; Yamazaki, T.; Matsushima, R.; Uchida, H.; Matsumiya, M.; Takatsu, A.; Suzuki, T. Quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Based on PULCON Methodology: Application to Quantification of Invaluable Marine Toxin, Okadaic Acid. Toxins 2016, 8, 294.

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