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Toxins 2016, 8(10), 297; doi:10.3390/toxins8100297

Toxicity and Growth Assessments of Three Thermophilic Benthic Dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) Developing in the Southern Mediterranean Basin

1
Research Group on Oceanography and Plankton Ecology, Tunisian National Institute of Agronomy (INAT), IRESA—Carthage University, 43 Avenue Charles Nicolle, Tunis 1082, Tunisia
2
Phycotoxins Laboratory, Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Rue De l’Ile d’Yeu, BP 21105, Nantes Cedex 3 F-44311, France
3
Laboratoire Environnement Ressource de Bretagne Occidentale (LER-BO), Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Station de Biologie Marine, Place de la Croix, BP 40537, Concarneau F-29185, France
4
Center for Marine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation (MARBEC), Montpellier University, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Place Eugène Bataillon, CC093, Montpellier Cedex 5 F-34095, France
5
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), 2 Rue Des Sports-El Menzah 1, BP 434, Tunis 1004, Tunisia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John P. Berry
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 20 September 2016 / Accepted: 30 September 2016 / Published: 15 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract

Harmful benthic dinoflagellates, usually developing in tropical areas, are expanding to temperate ecosystems facing water warming. Reports on harmful benthic species are particularly scarce in the Southern Mediterranean Sea. For the first time, three thermophilic benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) were isolated from Bizerte Bay (Tunisia, Mediterranean) and monoclonal cultures established. The ribotyping confirmed the morphological identification of the three species. Maximum growth rates were 0.59 ± 0.08 d−1 for O. cf. ovata, 0.35 ± 0.01 d−1 for C. monotis and 0.33 ± 0.04 d−1 for P. lima. Toxin analyses revealed the presence of ovatoxin-a and ovatoxin-b in O. cf. ovata cells. Okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were detected in P. lima cultures. For C. monotis, a chromatographic peak at 5.6 min with a mass m/z = 1061.768 was observed, but did not correspond to a mono-sulfated analogue of the yessotoxin. A comparison of the toxicity and growth characteristics of these dinoflagellates, distributed worldwide, is proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ostreopsis cf. ovata; Prorocentrum lima; Coolia monotis; Southern Mediterranean Sea; growth; toxicity Ostreopsis cf. ovata; Prorocentrum lima; Coolia monotis; Southern Mediterranean Sea; growth; toxicity
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Ben-Gharbia, H.; Yahia, O.K.-D.; Amzil, Z.; Chomérat, N.; Abadie, E.; Masseret, E.; Sibat, M.; Zmerli Triki, H.; Nouri, H.; Laabir, M. Toxicity and Growth Assessments of Three Thermophilic Benthic Dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) Developing in the Southern Mediterranean Basin. Toxins 2016, 8, 297.

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