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Toxins 2015, 7(6), 1962-1978; doi:10.3390/toxins7061962

Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management of the Ministry of Education, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreimar M. Soares
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 26 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Abstract

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management. View Full-Text
Keywords: sublethal effects; multigeneration; susceptibility; demographic parameters; Integrated pest management sublethal effects; multigeneration; susceptibility; demographic parameters; Integrated pest management
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, Z.; Zhang, Y. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Toxins 2015, 7, 1962-1978.

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