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Toxins 2015, 7(11), 4773-4796; doi:10.3390/toxins7114773

Metabolic and Hematological Consequences of Dietary Deoxynivalenol Interacting with Systemic Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide

1
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Bundesallee 50, Braunschweig 38116, Germany
2
Institute of Anatomy, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jiujiang Yu
Received: 11 September 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 16 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Human Diseases 2015)
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Abstract

Previous studies have shown that chronic oral deoxynivalenol (DON) exposure modulated Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation, whereby the liver was suspected to play an important role. Thus, a total of 41 barrows was fed one of two maize-based diets, either a DON-diet (4.59 mg DON/kg feed, n = 19) or a control diet (CON, n = 22). Pigs were equipped with indwelling catheters for pre- or post-hepatic (portal vs. jugular catheter) infusion of either control (0.9% NaCl) or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW) for 1h and frequent blood sampling. This design yielded six groups: CON_CONjugular‑CONportal, CON_CONjugular‑LPSportal, CON_LPSjugular‑CONportal, DON_CONjugular‑CONportal, DON_CONjugular‑LPSportal and DON_LPSjugular‑CONportal. Blood samples were analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, glucose, pH, lactate and red hemogram. The red hemogram and electrolytes were not affected by DON and LPS. DON-feeding solely decreased portal glucose uptake (p < 0.05). LPS-decreased partial oxygen pressure (pO2) overall (p < 0.05), but reduced pCO2 only in arterial blood, and DON had no effect on either. Irrespective of catheter localization, LPS decreased pH and base-excess (p < 0.01), but increased lactate and anion-gap (p < 0.01), indicating an emerging lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis was more pronounced in the group DON_LPSjugular-CONportal than in CON-fed counterparts (p < 0.05). DON-feeding aggravated the porcine acid-base balance in response to a subsequent immunostimulus dependent on its exposure site (pre- or post-hepatic). View Full-Text
Keywords: swine; deoxynivalenol; E. coli lipopolysaccharides; endotoxin; sepsis; blood gas; metabolism; glucose; inflammatory response swine; deoxynivalenol; E. coli lipopolysaccharides; endotoxin; sepsis; blood gas; metabolism; glucose; inflammatory response
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bannert, E.; Tesch, T.; Kluess, J.; Frahm, J.; Kersten, S.; Kahlert, S.; Renner, L.; Rothkötter, H.-J.; Dänicke, S. Metabolic and Hematological Consequences of Dietary Deoxynivalenol Interacting with Systemic Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide. Toxins 2015, 7, 4773-4796.

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