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Toxins 2015, 7(11), 4797-4816; doi:10.3390/toxins7114797

Botulinum Toxin Type A Induces Changes in the Chemical Coding of Substance P-Immunoreactive Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neurons Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder

1
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Warszawska 30, Olsztyn 10-082, Poland
2
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, Olsztyn 10-719, Poland
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bahman Jabbari
Received: 30 August 2015 / Revised: 10 October 2015 / Accepted: 6 November 2015 / Published: 16 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Botulinum Toxins on Human Pain)
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Abstract

Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a potent neurotoxin which blocks acetylcholine release from nerve terminals, and therefore leads to cessation of somatic motor and/or parasympathetic transmission. Recently it has been found that BTX also interferes with sensory transmission, thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the neurochemical characterization of substance P-immunoreactive (SP-IR) bladder-projecting sensory neurons (BPSN) after the toxin treatment. Investigated neurons were visualized with retrograde tracing method and their chemical profile was disclosed with double-labelling immunohistochemistry using antibodies against SP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), galanin (GAL), calbindin (CB), and somatostatin (SOM). In the control group (n = 6), 45% of the total population of BPSN were SP-IR. Nearly half of these neurons co-expressed PACAP or CGRP (45% and 35%, respectively), while co-localization of SP with GAL, nNOS, SOM or CB was found less frequently (3.7%, 1.8%, 1.2%, and 0.7%, respectively). In BTX-treated pigs (n = 6), toxin-injections caused a decrease in the number of SP-IR cells containing CGRP, SOM or CB (16.2%, 0.5%, and 0%, respectively) and a distinct increase in these nerve cells immunopositive to GAL (27.2%). The present study demonstrates that BTX significantly modifies the chemical phenotypes of SP-IR BPSN. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum toxin A; urinary bladder; sensory innervation; dorsal root ganglia; substance P; neurotransmitters; pain; immunohistochemistry; pig botulinum toxin A; urinary bladder; sensory innervation; dorsal root ganglia; substance P; neurotransmitters; pain; immunohistochemistry; pig
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bossowska, A.; Lepiarczyk, E.; Mazur, U.; Janikiewicz, P.; Markiewicz, W. Botulinum Toxin Type A Induces Changes in the Chemical Coding of Substance P-Immunoreactive Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neurons Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder. Toxins 2015, 7, 4797-4816.

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