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Toxins 2015, 7(11), 4684-4705; doi:10.3390/toxins7114684

The Effects of Low Doses of Two Fusarium Toxins, Zearalenone and Deoxynivalenol, on the Pig Jejunum. A Light and Electron Microscopic Study

1
Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
2
BIOMIN Polska Sp. z o.o., Grochowska 16, 04-217 Warszawa, Poland
3
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jiujiang Yu
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 5 October 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Human Diseases 2015)
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Abstract

Immature gilts were administered per os with zearalenone (ZEN) at 40 μg/kg BW (group Z, n = 9), deoxynivalenol (DON) at 12 μg/kg BW (group D, n = 9), a mixture of ZEN and DON (group M, n = 9) or a placebo (group C, n = 9) over a period of six weeks. The pigs were sacrificed after one, three, or six weeks of the treatment (12 pigs per each time-point). Histological investigations revealed an increase in the mucosal thickness and the crypt depth as well as a decrease in the ratio of the villus height to the crypt depth in groups D and M after six weeks of exposure to the mycotoxins. The number of goblet cells in the villus epithelium was elevated in groups Z and M after one week and in group D after three weeks. The administration of ZEN increased the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium after 1 week and the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of the experiment. DON treatment resulted in an increase in the lymphocyte number in the villus epithelium and the lamina propria after six weeks, and in the plasma cell quantity in the lamina propria after one, three, and six weeks of exposure. In group M, lymphocyte counts in the epithelium and the lamina propria increased significantly after six weeks. Neither mycotoxin induced significant adverse changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium and the lamina propria or in the intestinal barrier permeability. Our results indicate that immune cells are the principal target of low doses of ZEN and DON. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; zearalenone; deoxynivalenol; histology; ultrastructure; jejunum; pig mycotoxins; zearalenone; deoxynivalenol; histology; ultrastructure; jejunum; pig
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MDPI and ACS Style

Przybylska-Gornowicz, B.; Tarasiuk, M.; Lewczuk, B.; Prusik, M.; Ziółkowska, N.; Zielonka, Ł.; Gajęcki, M.; Gajęcka, M. The Effects of Low Doses of Two Fusarium Toxins, Zearalenone and Deoxynivalenol, on the Pig Jejunum. A Light and Electron Microscopic Study. Toxins 2015, 7, 4684-4705.

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