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Toxins 2015, 7(10), 4111-4130; doi:10.3390/toxins7104111

Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices

1,†
,
2,†
,
3
and
1,4,*
1
Laboratory of Mucosal Exposome and Biomodulation, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan 50612, Korea
2
Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, RDA, Eumseong 55365, Korea
3
Department of Applied Biology, College of Agricultural & Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
4
Research Institute for Basic Sciences and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Battilani
Received: 4 September 2015 / Revised: 3 October 2015 / Accepted: 8 October 2015 / Published: 14 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [752 KB, uploaded 14 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; herbal medicine; spice; aflatoxin; ochratoxin A; fumonisin mycotoxins; herbal medicine; spice; aflatoxin; ochratoxin A; fumonisin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Do, K.H.; An, T.J.; Oh, S.-K.; Moon, Y. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices. Toxins 2015, 7, 4111-4130.

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