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Toxins 2015, 7(10), 4350-4365; doi:10.3390/toxins7104350

Differential Adsorption of Ochratoxin A and Anthocyanins by Inactivated Yeasts and Yeast Cell Walls during Simulation of Wine Aging

Department of the Science of Agriculture, Food and Environment (SAFE), University of Foggia, Via Napoli 25, Foggia 71122, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Battilani
Received: 27 August 2015 / Revised: 10 October 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 26 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Abstract

The adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA) by yeasts is a promising approach for the decontamination of musts and wines, but some potential competitive or interactive phenomena between mycotoxin, yeast cells, and anthocyanins might modify the intensity of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to examine OTA adsorption by two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the wild strain W13, and the commercial isolate BM45), previously inactivated by heat, and a yeast cell wall preparation. Experiments were conducted using Nero di Troia red wine contaminated with 2 μg/L OTA and supplemented with yeast biomass (20 g/L). The samples were analyzed periodically to assess mycotoxin concentration, chromatic characteristics, and total anthocyanins over 84 days of aging. Yeast cell walls revealed the highest OTA-adsorption in comparison to thermally-inactivated cells (50% vs. 43% toxin reduction), whilst no significant differences were found for the amount of adsorbed anthocyanins in OTA-contaminated and control wines. OTA and anthocyanins adsorption were not competitive phenomena. Unfortunately, the addition of yeast cells to wine could cause color loss; therefore, yeast selection should also focus on this trait to select the best strain. View Full-Text
Keywords: ochratoxin A; anthocyanins; yeasts; adsorption; cell wall; wine aging ochratoxin A; anthocyanins; yeasts; adsorption; cell wall; wine aging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Petruzzi, L.; Baiano, A.; De Gianni, A.; Sinigaglia, M.; Corbo, M.R.; Bevilacqua, A. Differential Adsorption of Ochratoxin A and Anthocyanins by Inactivated Yeasts and Yeast Cell Walls during Simulation of Wine Aging. Toxins 2015, 7, 4350-4365.

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