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Toxins 2014, 6(3), 1021-1035; doi:10.3390/toxins6031021
Article

The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae

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Received: 31 October 2013; in revised form: 17 February 2014 / Accepted: 20 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract: Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine are discussed.
Keywords: Limnothrix; Geitlerinema; toxic; cyanobacteria; histology; Bufo marinus; notochord; brain; liver; pancreas; BMAA Limnothrix; Geitlerinema; toxic; cyanobacteria; histology; Bufo marinus; notochord; brain; liver; pancreas; BMAA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Daniels, O.; Fabbro, L.; Makiela, S. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae. Toxins 2014, 6, 1021-1035.

AMA Style

Daniels O, Fabbro L, Makiela S. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae. Toxins. 2014; 6(3):1021-1035.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Daniels, Olivia; Fabbro, Larelle; Makiela, Sandrine. 2014. "The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae." Toxins 6, no. 3: 1021-1035.



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