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Toxins 2014, 6(3), 1021-1035; doi:10.3390/toxins6031021
Article

The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae

* ,
 and
School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton 4701, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 17 February 2014 / Accepted: 20 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract

Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine are discussed.
Keywords: Limnothrix; Geitlerinema; toxic; cyanobacteria; histology; Bufo marinus; notochord; brain; liver; pancreas; BMAA Limnothrix; Geitlerinema; toxic; cyanobacteria; histology; Bufo marinus; notochord; brain; liver; pancreas; BMAA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Daniels, O.; Fabbro, L.; Makiela, S. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae. Toxins 2014, 6, 1021-1035.

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