Next Article in Journal
Identification of a Key Residue for Oligomerisation and Pore-Formation of Clostridium perfringens NetB
Previous Article in Journal
The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae
Toxins 2014, 6(3), 1036-1048; doi:10.3390/toxins6031036
Article

In-vitro Neurotoxicity of Two Malaysian Krait Species (Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus) Venoms: Neutralization by Monovalent and Polyvalent Antivenoms from Thailand

1,2,3
, 2
, 4
, 2
 and 1,*
1 Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia 2 Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Sunway Campus, Bandar Sunway 46150, Malaysia 3 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Bandar Indera Mahkota 23800, Malaysia 4 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 59100, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 7 March 2014 / Published: 12 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [753 KB, uploaded 12 March 2014]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus are two species of krait found in Southeast Asia. Envenoming by these snakes is often characterized by neurotoxicity and, without treatment, causes considerable morbidity and mortality. In this study, the in vitro neurotoxicity of each species, and the effectiveness of two monovalent antivenoms and a polyvalent antivenom, against the neurotoxic effects of the venoms, were examined in a skeletal muscle preparation. Both venoms caused concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect twitches, and attenuated responses to exogenous nicotinic receptor agonists, in the chick biventer preparation, with B. candidus venom being more potent than B. fasciatus venom. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis indicated different profiles between the venoms. Despite these differences, most proteins bands were recognized by all three antivenoms. Antivenom, added prior to the venoms, attenuated the neurotoxic effect of the venoms. Interestingly, the respective monovalent antivenoms did not neutralize the effects of the venom from the other Bungarus species indicating a relative absence of cross-neutralization. Addition of a high concentration of polyvalent antivenom, at the t90 time point after addition of venom, partially reversed the neurotoxicity of B. fasciatus venom but not B. candidus venom. The monovalent antivenoms had no significant effect when added at the t90 time point. This study showed that B. candidus and B. fasciatus venoms display marked in vitro neurotoxicity in the chick biventer preparation and administration of antivenoms at high dose is necessary to prevent or reverse neurotoxicity.
Keywords: venom; krait; snake; neurotoxicity; antivenom; Bungarus fasciatus; Bungarus candidus venom; krait; snake; neurotoxicity; antivenom; Bungarus fasciatus; Bungarus candidus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Rusmili, M.R.A.; Yee, T.T.; Mustafa, M.R.; Othman, I.; Hodgson, W.C. In-vitro Neurotoxicity of Two Malaysian Krait Species (Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus) Venoms: Neutralization by Monovalent and Polyvalent Antivenoms from Thailand. Toxins 2014, 6, 1036-1048.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Comments

Citing Articles

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert