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Toxins 2014, 6(3), 1062-1079; doi:10.3390/toxins6031062
Article

Influence of Two Depuration Periods on the Activity and Transcription of Antioxidant Enzymes in Tilapia Exposed to Repeated Doses of Cylindrospermopsin under Laboratory Conditions

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Received: 12 November 2013; in revised form: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract: The cyanobacterial toxin Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, is increasingly being found in freshwater bodies infested by cyanobacterial blooms worldwide. Moreover, it has been reported to be implicated in human intoxications and animal mortality. Recently, the alteration of the activity and gene expression of some glutathione related enzymes in tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a single dose of CYN has been reported. However, little is known about the effects induced by repeated doses of this toxin in tilapias exposed by immersion and the potential reversion of these biochemical alterations after two different depuration periods (3 or 7 days). In the present study, tilapias were exposed by immersion to repeated doses of a CYN-containing culture of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum during 14 days, and then were subjected to depuration periods (3 or 7 days) in clean water in order to examine the potential reversion of the effects observed. The activity and relative mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST), and also the sGST protein abundance by Western blot analysis were evaluated in liver and kidney of fish. Results showed significant alterations in most of the parameters evaluated and their recovery after 3 days (GPx activity, sGST relative abundance) or 7 days (GPx gene expression, sGST activity). These findings not only confirm the oxidative stress effects produced in fish by cyanobacterial cells containing CYN, but also show the effectiveness of depuration processes in mitigating the CYN-containing culture toxic effects.
Keywords: cylindrospermopsin; depuration; glutathione transferase; glutathione peroxidise; tilapia cylindrospermopsin; depuration; glutathione transferase; glutathione peroxidise; tilapia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ríos, V.; Guzmán-Guillén, R.; Moreno, I.M.; Prieto, A.I.; Puerto, M.; Jos, A.; Cameán, A.M. Influence of Two Depuration Periods on the Activity and Transcription of Antioxidant Enzymes in Tilapia Exposed to Repeated Doses of Cylindrospermopsin under Laboratory Conditions. Toxins 2014, 6, 1062-1079.

AMA Style

Ríos V, Guzmán-Guillén R, Moreno IM, Prieto AI, Puerto M, Jos A, Cameán AM. Influence of Two Depuration Periods on the Activity and Transcription of Antioxidant Enzymes in Tilapia Exposed to Repeated Doses of Cylindrospermopsin under Laboratory Conditions. Toxins. 2014; 6(3):1062-1079.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ríos, Victoria; Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Moreno, Isabel M.; Prieto, Ana I.; Puerto, María; Jos, Angeles; Cameán, Ana M. 2014. "Influence of Two Depuration Periods on the Activity and Transcription of Antioxidant Enzymes in Tilapia Exposed to Repeated Doses of Cylindrospermopsin under Laboratory Conditions." Toxins 6, no. 3: 1062-1079.



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