Toxins 2014, 6(2), 539-555; doi:10.3390/toxins6020539
Review

Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish

1,* email and 2email
Received: 4 December 2013; in revised form: 16 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 28 January 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract: Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans.
Keywords: cyprinid fish; gallbladder; bile alcohol; Thin layer chromatography; acute renal failure; acute dysfunction of liver; FAB mass spectrometry; IR spectrometry; NMR spectrometry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Asakawa, M.; Noguchi, T. Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish. Toxins 2014, 6, 539-555.

AMA Style

Asakawa M, Noguchi T. Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish. Toxins. 2014; 6(2):539-555.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao. 2014. "Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish." Toxins 6, no. 2: 539-555.


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