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Toxins 2014, 6(12), 3296-3325; doi:10.3390/toxins6123296

Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins: An Overview of Their Biocidal Activity

1
Instituto de Agrobiotecnología, CSIC-UPNA-Gobierno de Navarra, Campus Arrosadía, Mutilva Baja, 31192 Navarra, Spain
2
Grupo de Protección Cultivos, Departamento de Producción Agraria, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona, 31006 Navarra, Spain
3
Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2014 / Revised: 7 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 11 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins)
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Abstract

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium that synthesizes parasporal crystalline inclusions containing Cry and Cyt proteins, some of which are toxic against a wide range of insect orders, nematodes and human-cancer cells. These toxins have been successfully used as bioinsecticides against caterpillars, beetles, and flies, including mosquitoes and blackflies. Bt also synthesizes insecticidal proteins during the vegetative growth phase, which are subsequently secreted into the growth medium. These proteins are commonly known as vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) and hold insecticidal activity against lepidopteran, coleopteran and some homopteran pests. A less well characterized secretory protein with no amino acid similarity to Vip proteins has shown insecticidal activity against coleopteran pests and is termed Sip (secreted insecticidal protein). Bin-like and ETX_MTX2-family proteins (Pfam PF03318), which share amino acid similarities with mosquitocidal binary (Bin) and Mtx2 toxins, respectively, from Lysinibacillus sphaericus, are also produced by some Bt strains. In addition, vast numbers of Bt isolates naturally present in the soil and the phylloplane also synthesize crystal proteins whose biological activity is still unknown. In this review, we provide an updated overview of the known active Bt toxins to date and discuss their activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis; Bt biopesticides; toxic activity; Cry toxins; Cyt toxins; Vip toxins; Sip toxins; parasporins Bacillus thuringiensis; Bt biopesticides; toxic activity; Cry toxins; Cyt toxins; Vip toxins; Sip toxins; parasporins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Palma, L.; Muñoz, D.; Berry, C.; Murillo, J.; Caballero, P. Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins: An Overview of Their Biocidal Activity. Toxins 2014, 6, 3296-3325.

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