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Toxins 2014, 6(10), 3005-3027; doi:10.3390/toxins6103005

Bt Toxin Modification for Enhanced Efficacy

1
Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Departments of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
3
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 May 2014 / Revised: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 22 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins)
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Abstract

Insect-specific toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide a valuable resource for pest suppression. Here we review the different strategies that have been employed to enhance toxicity against specific target species including those that have evolved resistance to Bt, or to modify the host range of Bt crystal (Cry) and cytolytic (Cyt) toxins. These strategies include toxin truncation, modification of protease cleavage sites, domain swapping, site-directed mutagenesis, peptide addition, and phage display screens for mutated toxins with enhanced activity. Toxin optimization provides a useful approach to extend the utility of these proteins for suppression of pests that exhibit low susceptibility to native Bt toxins, and to overcome field resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis; Bt; toxins; genetic modification; crop protection; pest management; truncation; phage display; site-directed mutagenesis Bacillus thuringiensis; Bt; toxins; genetic modification; crop protection; pest management; truncation; phage display; site-directed mutagenesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Deist, B.R.; Rausch, M.A.; Fernandez-Luna, M.T.; Adang, M.J.; Bonning, B.C. Bt Toxin Modification for Enhanced Efficacy. Toxins 2014, 6, 3005-3027.

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