Next Article in Journal
Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins: An Overview of Their Biocidal Activity
Next Article in Special Issue
Diversification of Ergot Alkaloids in Natural and Modified Fungi
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultrasound on Biomass Reduction and Toxin Release in the Cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2014, 6(12), 3281-3295; doi:10.3390/toxins6123281

Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids

1
Philipps-Universität Marburg, Institut für Pharmazeutische Biologie und Biotechnologie, Deutschhausstrasse 17A, D-35037 Marburg, Germany
2
Institut für Biologie und Biotechnologie der Pflanzen, Westfälische Wilhelms Universität Münster, Schlossplatz 8, D-48143 Münster, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2014 / Revised: 4 December 2014 / Accepted: 5 December 2014 / Published: 10 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ergot Alkaloids: Chemistry, Biology and Toxicology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [732 KB, uploaded 10 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

Ergot alkaloids are nitrogen-containing natural products belonging to indole alkaloids. The best known producers are fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, e.g., Claviceps, Epichloë, Penicillium and Aspergillus species. According to their structures, ergot alkaloids can be divided into three groups: clavines, lysergic acid amides and peptides (ergopeptines). All of them share the first biosynthetic steps, which lead to the formation of the tetracyclic ergoline ring system (except the simplest, tricyclic compound: chanoclavine). Different modifications on the ergoline ring by specific enzymes result in an abundance of bioactive natural products, which are used as pharmaceutical drugs or precursors thereof. From the 1950s through to recent years, most of the biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated. Gene clusters from several ergot alkaloid producers have been identified by genome mining and the functions of many of those genes have been demonstrated by knock-out experiments or biochemical investigations of the overproduced enzymes. View Full-Text
Keywords: ergot alkaloids; biosynthetic pathway; secondary metabolism; natural products; fungi; mycotoxins ergot alkaloids; biosynthetic pathway; secondary metabolism; natural products; fungi; mycotoxins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gerhards, N.; Neubauer, L.; Tudzynski, P.; Li, S.-M. Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids. Toxins 2014, 6, 3281-3295.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top