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Toxins 2014, 6(12), 3260-3280; doi:10.3390/toxins6123260

Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultrasound on Biomass Reduction and Toxin Release in the Cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa

1
Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), P.O. Box 50, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2014 / Revised: 25 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 10 December 2014
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Abstract

Cyanobacterial blooms are expected to increase, and the toxins they produce threaten human health and impair ecosystem services. The reduction of the nutrient load of surface waters is the preferred way to prevent these blooms; however, this is not always feasible. Quick curative measures are therefore preferred in some cases. Two of these proposed measures, peroxide and ultrasound, were tested for their efficiency in reducing cyanobacterial biomass and potential release of cyanotoxins. Hereto, laboratory assays with a microcystin (MC)-producing cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa) were conducted. Peroxide effectively reduced M. aeruginosa biomass when dosed at 4 or 8 mg L−1, but not at 1 and 2 mg L−1. Peroxide dosed at 4 or 8 mg L−1 lowered total MC concentrations by 23%, yet led to a significant release of MCs into the water. Dissolved MC concentrations were nine-times (4 mg L−1) and 12-times (8 mg L−1 H2O2) higher than in the control. Cell lysis moreover increased the proportion of the dissolved hydrophobic variants, MC-LW and MC-LF (where L = Leucine, W = tryptophan, F = phenylalanine). Ultrasound treatment with commercial transducers sold for clearing ponds and lakes only caused minimal growth inhibition and some release of MCs into the water. Commercial ultrasound transducers are therefore ineffective at controlling cyanobacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanotoxin; eutrophication control; lake restoration; LC-MS/MS; microcystin profile; PCC 7820 cyanotoxin; eutrophication control; lake restoration; LC-MS/MS; microcystin profile; PCC 7820
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lürling, M.; Meng, D.; Faassen, E.J. Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultrasound on Biomass Reduction and Toxin Release in the Cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa. Toxins 2014, 6, 3260-3280.

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