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Toxins 2014, 6(10), 2872-2885; doi:10.3390/toxins6102872

Evaluation of Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity and Hematotoxicity of the Recombinant Spore-Crystal Complexes Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 from Bacillus thuringiensis in Swiss Mice

1
Department of Genetics and Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Brasilia, Brasília 70910-900, Brazil
2
Faculty of Medicine, Faciplac, Campus Gama 72460-000, Brazil
3
Instituto Mato-Grossense do Algodão–IMAmt/Faculdades Integradas ICESP/Promove de Brasília, Brasília 78008-000, Brazil
4
Laboratory of Bacteriology, Centro Nacional de Recursos Genéticos (CENARGEN), Brasília 70770-917, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 29 July 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 29 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins)
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Abstract

The insecticidal properties of Cry-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have long been used as spore-crystals in commercial spray formulations for insect control. Recently, some Bt-endotoxin genes have been cloned in many different plants. Toxicological evaluations of three spore-crystal endotoxins, BtCry1Ia, BtCry10Aa and BtCry1Ba6 from B. thuringiensis, were carried out on mice to understand their adverse effects on hematological systems and on genetic material. These three spore-crystals have shown toxic activity to the boll weevil, which is one of the most aggressive pests of the cotton crop. Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 did not increase the micronucleus frequency in the peripheral erythrocytes of mice and did not cause changes in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes. However, some hematologic disburbances were observed, specifically related to Cry1Ia and Cry1Ba6, respectively, for the erythroid and lymphoid lineage. Thus, although the profile of such adverse side effects can be related to their high level of exposure, which is not commonly found in the environment, results showed that these Bt spore-crystals were not harmless to mice, indicating that each spore-crystal endotoxin presents a characteristic profile of toxicity and might be investigated individually. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopesticides; spore-crystal; micronucleus; endotoxins biopesticides; spore-crystal; micronucleus; endotoxins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

de Souza Freire, I.; Miranda-Vilela, A.L.; Barbosa, L.C.P.; Martins, E.S.; Monnerat, R.G.; Grisolia, C.K. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity and Hematotoxicity of the Recombinant Spore-Crystal Complexes Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 from Bacillus thuringiensis in Swiss Mice. Toxins 2014, 6, 2872-2885.

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