Toxins 2013, 5(9), 1531-1542; doi:10.3390/toxins5091531

CD28: Direct and Critical Receptor for Superantigen Toxins

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Received: 5 August 2013; in revised form: 30 August 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 9 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Properties of Well-Characterized Toxins)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Every adaptive immune response requires costimulation through the B7/CD28 axis, with CD28 on T-cells functioning as principal costimulatory receptor. Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigen toxins hyperstimulate the T-cell-mediated immune response by orders of magnitude, inducing a lethal cytokine storm. We show that to elicit an inflammatory cytokine storm and lethality, superantigens must bind directly to CD28. Blocking access of the superantigen to its CD28 receptor with peptides mimicking the contact domains in either toxin or CD28 suffices to protect mice effectively from lethal shock. Our finding that CD28 is a direct receptor of superantigen toxins broadens the scope of microbial pathogen recognition mechanisms.
Keywords: superantigen toxins; inflammatory cytokine storm; lethal toxic shock; biodefense; CD28 receptor; CD28 dimer interface
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaempfer, R.; Arad, G.; Levy, R.; Hillman, D.; Nasie, I.; Rotfogel, Z. CD28: Direct and Critical Receptor for Superantigen Toxins. Toxins 2013, 5, 1531-1542.

AMA Style

Kaempfer R, Arad G, Levy R, Hillman D, Nasie I, Rotfogel Z. CD28: Direct and Critical Receptor for Superantigen Toxins. Toxins. 2013; 5(9):1531-1542.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kaempfer, Raymond; Arad, Gila; Levy, Revital; Hillman, Dalia; Nasie, Iris; Rotfogel, Ziv. 2013. "CD28: Direct and Critical Receptor for Superantigen Toxins." Toxins 5, no. 9: 1531-1542.

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