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Toxins 2013, 5(9), 1503-1530; doi:10.3390/toxins5091503
Review

Porcine/Chicken or Human Nephropathy as the Result of Joint Mycotoxins Interaction

1,†,*  and 2,†
Received: 11 July 2013; in revised form: 24 August 2013 / Accepted: 26 August 2013 / Published: 4 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Ochratoxins Research)
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Abstract: A survey was made of the literature concerning the occurrence and incidence of mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs and chicks in different countries. Various etiological factors contributing to the development of the disease were considered. The main nephrotoxic fungi as well as the specific conditions for their growth and toxins production were briefly described. A survey was made about the most frequent nephrotoxic fungal contaminants in various feedstuffs from plant origin. In addition, their natural quantities and importance for development of mycotoxic porcine/chick nephropathy (MPN/MCN) are also explored. In addition, a survey was made of the feedstuffs representing the most favorable environment for nephrotoxic fungal growth as well as the most favorable storehouse conditions for this fungal growth were shortly described. The significance of some underestimated fungal species, which can provoke kidney damage, was studied. The importance of joint mycotoxin interaction and newly identified fungal metabolites in the complex etiology of mycotoxic nephropathy ranged in some countries is deeply investigated. The toxicity of the low contamination levels of some combinations of mycotoxins often administered by pigs and chicks in the practice was carefully studied.
Keywords: mycotoxic porcine nephropathy; mycotoxic chick nephropathy; Balkan endemic nephropathy; joint mycotoxin effect; mycotoxin interaction; ochratoxin A; penicillic acid; fumonisin B1; citrinin; unknown metabolite mycotoxic porcine nephropathy; mycotoxic chick nephropathy; Balkan endemic nephropathy; joint mycotoxin effect; mycotoxin interaction; ochratoxin A; penicillic acid; fumonisin B1; citrinin; unknown metabolite
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stoev, S.D.; Denev, S.A. Porcine/Chicken or Human Nephropathy as the Result of Joint Mycotoxins Interaction. Toxins 2013, 5, 1503-1530.

AMA Style

Stoev SD, Denev SA. Porcine/Chicken or Human Nephropathy as the Result of Joint Mycotoxins Interaction. Toxins. 2013; 5(9):1503-1530.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stoev, Stoycho D.; Denev, Stefan A. 2013. "Porcine/Chicken or Human Nephropathy as the Result of Joint Mycotoxins Interaction." Toxins 5, no. 9: 1503-1530.


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