Toxins 2013, 5(8), 1486-1502; doi:10.3390/toxins5081486

Immunotoxins: The Role of the Toxin

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Received: 15 July 2013; in revised form: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 21 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Carcinogenesis)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Immunotoxins are antibody-toxin bifunctional molecules that rely on intracellular toxin action to kill target cells. Target specificity is determined via the binding attributes of the chosen antibody. Mostly, but not exclusively, immunotoxins are purpose-built to kill cancer cells as part of novel treatment approaches. Other applications for immunotoxins include immune regulation and the treatment of viral or parasitic diseases. Here we discuss the utility of protein toxins, of both bacterial and plant origin, joined to antibodies for targeting cancer cells. Finally, while clinical goals are focused on the development of novel cancer treatments, much has been learned about toxin action and intracellular pathways. Thus toxins are considered both medicines for treating human disease and probes of cellular function.
Keywords: immunotoxin; antibody; toxin; cancer; immunotherapy; apoptosis; translocation; ricin; diphtheria; Pseudomonas
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MDPI and ACS Style

Antignani, A.; FitzGerald, D. Immunotoxins: The Role of the Toxin. Toxins 2013, 5, 1486-1502.

AMA Style

Antignani A, FitzGerald D. Immunotoxins: The Role of the Toxin. Toxins. 2013; 5(8):1486-1502.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Antignani, Antonella; FitzGerald, David. 2013. "Immunotoxins: The Role of the Toxin." Toxins 5, no. 8: 1486-1502.

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