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The Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 from E. Coli: A Janus Toxin Playing with Cancer Regulators
Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicines Evaluation, Superior Health Institute, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2013; in revised form: 24 July 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 14 August 2013
Abstract: Certain strains of Escherichia coli have been indicated as a risk factor for colon cancer. E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the human intestine that becomes pathogenic, especially in extraintestinal sites, following the acquisition of virulence factors, including the protein toxin CNF1. This Rho GTPases-activating toxin induces dysfunctions in transformed epithelial cells, such as apoptosis counteraction, pro-inflammatory cytokines’ release, COX2 expression, NF-kB activation and boosted cellular motility. As cancer may arise when the same regulatory pathways are affected, it is conceivable to hypothesize that CNF1-producing E. coli infections can contribute to cancer development. This review focuses on those aspects of CNF1 related to transformation, with the aim of contributing to the identification of a new possible carcinogenic agent from the microbial world.
Keywords: CNF1; cancer; inflammation; Rho GTPases
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Fabbri, A.; Travaglione, S.; Ballan, G.; Loizzo, S.; Fiorentini, C. The Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 from E. Coli: A Janus Toxin Playing with Cancer Regulators. Toxins 2013, 5, 1462-1474.
Fabbri A, Travaglione S, Ballan G, Loizzo S, Fiorentini C. The Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 from E. Coli: A Janus Toxin Playing with Cancer Regulators. Toxins. 2013; 5(8):1462-1474.
Fabbri, Alessia; Travaglione, Sara; Ballan, Giulia; Loizzo, Stefano; Fiorentini, Carla. 2013. "The Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 from E. Coli: A Janus Toxin Playing with Cancer Regulators." Toxins 5, no. 8: 1462-1474.