Toxins 2013, 5(8), 1462-1474; doi:10.3390/toxins5081462
Review

The Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 from E. Coli: A Janus Toxin Playing with Cancer Regulators

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Received: 9 July 2013; in revised form: 24 July 2013 / Accepted: 6 August 2013 / Published: 14 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins and Carcinogenesis)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Certain strains of Escherichia coli have been indicated as a risk factor for colon cancer. E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the human intestine that becomes pathogenic, especially in extraintestinal sites, following the acquisition of virulence factors, including the protein toxin CNF1. This Rho GTPases-activating toxin induces dysfunctions in transformed epithelial cells, such as apoptosis counteraction, pro-inflammatory cytokines’ release, COX2 expression, NF-kB activation and boosted cellular motility. As cancer may arise when the same regulatory pathways are affected, it is conceivable to hypothesize that CNF1-producing E. coli infections can contribute to cancer development. This review focuses on those aspects of CNF1 related to transformation, with the aim of contributing to the identification of a new possible carcinogenic agent from the microbial world.
Keywords: CNF1; cancer; inflammation; Rho GTPases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fabbri, A.; Travaglione, S.; Ballan, G.; Loizzo, S.; Fiorentini, C. The Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 from E. Coli: A Janus Toxin Playing with Cancer Regulators. Toxins 2013, 5, 1462-1474.

AMA Style

Fabbri A, Travaglione S, Ballan G, Loizzo S, Fiorentini C. The Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 from E. Coli: A Janus Toxin Playing with Cancer Regulators. Toxins. 2013; 5(8):1462-1474.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fabbri, Alessia; Travaglione, Sara; Ballan, Giulia; Loizzo, Stefano; Fiorentini, Carla. 2013. "The Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 from E. Coli: A Janus Toxin Playing with Cancer Regulators." Toxins 5, no. 8: 1462-1474.

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