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Impact of pH on the Stability and the Cross-Reactivity of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin
Ecole des mines d'Ales, 6 av de Clavieres, 30100 Ales Cedex, France
Laboratory Chemical Engineering, Department Bioprocess & Microbial System, University of Toulouse, UMR CNRS/INPT/UPS 5503, 1 Avenue Agrobiopole, 31320 Auzeville-Tolosane, France
Anabiotox 16 allée Montcalm, 31500 Ramonville, France
Laboratory IMAGES, University of Perpignan, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan Cedex, France
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2013; in revised form: 21 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
Abstract: Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungi contaminating crops. In several countries, the maximum permitted levels of mycotoxins are found in foodstuffs and feedstuffs. The common strategy of mycotoxin analysis involves extraction, clean-up and quantification by chromatography. In this paper, we analyzed the reasons of underestimation of ochratoxin A (OTA) content in wine, and overestimation of OTA in wheat, depending on the pH of the clean-up step and the simultaneous presence of citrinin (CIT). We demonstrated that the increase of pH by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) to wine led to an underestimation of OTA by conversion of OTA into open ring ochratoxin A OP-OA. In comparing three methods of extraction and clean-up for the determination of OTA and CIT in wheat—(i) an inter-laboratory validated method for OTA in cereals using immunoaffinity column clean-up (IAC) and extraction by acetonitrile/water; (ii) a validated method using IAC and extraction with 1% bicarbonate Na; and (iii) an in-house validated method based on acid liquid/liquid extraction—we observed an overestimation of OTA after immunoaffinity clean-up when CIT is also present in the sample, whereas an underestimation was observed when OTA was alone. Under neutral and alkaline conditions, CIT was partially recognized by OTA antibodies.
Keywords: mycotoxin; ochratoxin; citrinin; analysis; immunoaffinity; wheat; wine
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Bazin, I.; Faucet-Marquis, V.; Monje, M.-C.; El Khoury, M.; Marty, J.-L.; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A. Impact of pH on the Stability and the Cross-Reactivity of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin. Toxins 2013, 5, 2324-2340.
Bazin I, Faucet-Marquis V, Monje M-C, El Khoury M, Marty J-L, Pfohl-Leszkowicz A. Impact of pH on the Stability and the Cross-Reactivity of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin. Toxins. 2013; 5(12):2324-2340.
Bazin, Ingrid; Faucet-Marquis, Virginie; Monje, Marie-Carmen; El Khoury, Micheline; Marty, Jean-Louis; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie. 2013. "Impact of pH on the Stability and the Cross-Reactivity of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin." Toxins 5, no. 12: 2324-2340.