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Toxins 2013, 5(12), 2324-2340; doi:10.3390/toxins5122324
Article

Impact of pH on the Stability and the Cross-Reactivity of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin

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Received: 15 September 2013; in revised form: 21 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Ochratoxins Research)
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Abstract: Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungi contaminating crops. In several countries, the maximum permitted levels of mycotoxins are found in foodstuffs and feedstuffs. The common strategy of mycotoxin analysis involves extraction, clean-up and quantification by chromatography. In this paper, we analyzed the reasons of underestimation of ochratoxin A (OTA) content in wine, and overestimation of OTA in wheat, depending on the pH of the clean-up step and the simultaneous presence of citrinin (CIT). We demonstrated that the increase of pH by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) to wine led to an underestimation of OTA by conversion of OTA into open ring ochratoxin A OP-OA. In comparing three methods of extraction and clean-up for the determination of OTA and CIT in wheat—(i) an inter-laboratory validated method for OTA in cereals using immunoaffinity column clean-up (IAC) and extraction by acetonitrile/water; (ii) a validated method using IAC and extraction with 1% bicarbonate Na; and (iii) an in-house validated method based on acid liquid/liquid extraction—we observed an overestimation of OTA after immunoaffinity clean-up when CIT is also present in the sample, whereas an underestimation was observed when OTA was alone. Under neutral and alkaline conditions, CIT was partially recognized by OTA antibodies.
Keywords: mycotoxin; ochratoxin; citrinin; analysis; immunoaffinity; wheat; wine mycotoxin; ochratoxin; citrinin; analysis; immunoaffinity; wheat; wine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bazin, I.; Faucet-Marquis, V.; Monje, M.-C.; El Khoury, M.; Marty, J.-L.; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A. Impact of pH on the Stability and the Cross-Reactivity of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin. Toxins 2013, 5, 2324-2340.

AMA Style

Bazin I, Faucet-Marquis V, Monje M-C, El Khoury M, Marty J-L, Pfohl-Leszkowicz A. Impact of pH on the Stability and the Cross-Reactivity of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin. Toxins. 2013; 5(12):2324-2340.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bazin, Ingrid; Faucet-Marquis, Virginie; Monje, Marie-Carmen; El Khoury, Micheline; Marty, Jean-Louis; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie. 2013. "Impact of pH on the Stability and the Cross-Reactivity of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin." Toxins 5, no. 12: 2324-2340.



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