Toxins 2013, 5(11), 2138-2160; doi:10.3390/toxins5112138
Review

Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin: A Malevolent Molecule for Animals and Man?

1 Biology Department, Wilson College, 1015 Philadelphia Avenue, Chambersburg, PA 17201, USA 2 Veterinary Medical Technology Department, Wilson College, 1015 Philadelphia Avenue, Chambersburg, PA 17201, USA 3 Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Ulm Medical Center, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm D-89081, Germany 4 Bacteries Anaerobies et Toxines, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, Paris 75724, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2013; in revised form: 30 October 2013 / Accepted: 31 October 2013 / Published: 12 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins: Microbial Proteins and Host Cell Dysregulation)
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Abstract: Clostridium perfringens is a prolific, toxin-producing anaerobe causing multiple diseases in humans and animals. One of these toxins is epsilon, a 33 kDa protein produced by Clostridium perfringens (types B and D) that induces fatal enteric disease of goats, sheep and cattle. Epsilon toxin (Etx) belongs to the aerolysin-like toxin family. It contains three distinct domains, is proteolytically-activated and forms oligomeric pores on cell surfaces via a lipid raft-associated protein(s). Vaccination controls Etx-induced disease in the field. However, therapeutic measures are currently lacking. This review initially introduces C. perfringens toxins, subsequently focusing upon the Etx and its biochemistry, disease characteristics in various animals that include laboratory models (in vitro and in vivo), and finally control mechanisms (vaccines and therapeutics).
Keywords: Clostridium perfringens; protein toxin; receptor; animal models; cell culture; vaccines; therapeutics

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stiles, B.G.; Barth, G.; Barth, H.; Popoff, M.R. Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin: A Malevolent Molecule for Animals and Man? Toxins 2013, 5, 2138-2160.

AMA Style

Stiles BG, Barth G, Barth H, Popoff MR. Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin: A Malevolent Molecule for Animals and Man? Toxins. 2013; 5(11):2138-2160.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stiles, Bradley G.; Barth, Gillian; Barth, Holger; Popoff, Michel R. 2013. "Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin: A Malevolent Molecule for Animals and Man?" Toxins 5, no. 11: 2138-2160.

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