Toxins 2013, 5(11), 2109-2137; doi:10.3390/toxins5112109

Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins

1,* email and 2email
Received: 19 September 2013; in revised form: 23 October 2013 / Accepted: 30 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved.
Keywords: shellfish toxins; risk assessment; acute toxicity; chronic toxicity; genotoxicity; absorption and metabolism; toxicity equivalence factors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Munday, R.; Reeve, J. Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins. Toxins 2013, 5, 2109-2137.

AMA Style

Munday R, Reeve J. Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins. Toxins. 2013; 5(11):2109-2137.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Munday, Rex; Reeve, John. 2013. "Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins." Toxins 5, no. 11: 2109-2137.

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