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Toxins 2013, 5(11), 2161-2171; doi:10.3390/toxins5112161
Article

Potential Degradation of Swainsonine by Intracellular Enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08

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Received: 4 September 2013; in revised form: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
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Abstract: Swainsonine (SW) is a toxin produced by locoweeds and harmful to the livestock industry. Degrading SW by Arthrobacter sp. HW08 was demonstrated as a promising way to deal with SW poisoning. However, it is unknown which part of the subcellular enzymes in Arthrobacter sp. HW08 is responsible for biodegrading SW and whether the metabolites are atoxic. In this study, intracellular and extracellular enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 were isolated and their enzyme activity was evaluated. The metabolites were fed to mice, and physiological and histological properties of the treated mice were investigated. The results showed that only intracellular enzyme of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 (IEHW08) could degrade SW efficiently. Compared with mice in SW treatment group, mice in SW + IEHW08 treatment group (1) increased their body weights; (2) showed higher number of platelets and lower number of white blood cells; (3) decreased the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum; (4) reduced the number of vacuolated cells in cerebellum, liver and kidney. All these data demonstrate that IEHW08 was potentially safe for mice, while keeping the capacity of degrading SW. This study indicates a possible application of IEHW08 as an additive in the livestock industry to protect animals from SW poisoning.
Keywords: swainsonine; Arthrobacter sp.; mice; intracellular enzyme; degradation swainsonine; Arthrobacter sp.; mice; intracellular enzyme; degradation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Y.; Li, Y.; Hu, Y.; Li, J.; Yang, G.; Kang, D.; Li, H.; Wang, J. Potential Degradation of Swainsonine by Intracellular Enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08. Toxins 2013, 5, 2161-2171.

AMA Style

Wang Y, Li Y, Hu Y, Li J, Yang G, Kang D, Li H, Wang J. Potential Degradation of Swainsonine by Intracellular Enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08. Toxins. 2013; 5(11):2161-2171.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Yan; Li, Yanhong; Hu, Yanchun; Li, Jincheng; Yang, Guodong; Kang, Danju; Li, Haili; Wang, Jianhua. 2013. "Potential Degradation of Swainsonine by Intracellular Enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08." Toxins 5, no. 11: 2161-2171.


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