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Toxins 2013, 5(11), 2093-2108; doi:10.3390/toxins5112093
Article

Oral Toxicity of Okadaic Acid in Mice: Study of Lethality, Organ Damage, Distribution and Effects on Detoxifying Gene Expression

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Received: 10 September 2013; in revised form: 15 October 2013 / Accepted: 5 November 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
(This article belongs to the collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract: In vivo, after administration by gavage to mice and rats, okadaic acid has been reported to produce lesions in liver, small intestine and forestomach. Because several reports differ in the damage detected in different organs, and on okadaic acid distribution after consumption, we determined the toxicity of this compound after oral administration to mice. After 24 hours, histopathological examination showed necrotic foci and lipid vacuoles in the livers of intoxicated animals. By immunohistochemical analysis, we detected this toxin in the liver and kidneys of intoxicated animals. Okadaic acid induces oxidative stress and can be activated in vitro into reactive compounds by the post-mitochondrial S9 fraction, so we studied the okadaic effect on the gene expression of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes in liver. We observed a downregulation in the expression of these enzymes and a reduction of protein expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase 1 in intoxicated animals.
Keywords: okadaic acid; histopathology; diarrhea; immunohistochemistry; liver; superoxide dismutase 1; catalase; quantitative PCR; mice okadaic acid; histopathology; diarrhea; immunohistochemistry; liver; superoxide dismutase 1; catalase; quantitative PCR; mice
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Vieira, A.C.; Rubiolo, J.A.; López-Alonso, H.; Cifuentes, J.M.; Alfonso, A.; Bermúdez, R.; Otero, P.; Vieytes, M.R.; Vega, F.V.; Botana, L.M. Oral Toxicity of Okadaic Acid in Mice: Study of Lethality, Organ Damage, Distribution and Effects on Detoxifying Gene Expression. Toxins 2013, 5, 2093-2108.

AMA Style

Vieira AC, Rubiolo JA, López-Alonso H, Cifuentes JM, Alfonso A, Bermúdez R, Otero P, Vieytes MR, Vega FV, Botana LM. Oral Toxicity of Okadaic Acid in Mice: Study of Lethality, Organ Damage, Distribution and Effects on Detoxifying Gene Expression. Toxins. 2013; 5(11):2093-2108.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vieira, Andres C.; Rubiolo, Juan A.; López-Alonso, Henar; Cifuentes, José M.; Alfonso, Amparo; Bermúdez, Roberto; Otero, Paz; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Vega, Félix V.; Botana, Luis M. 2013. "Oral Toxicity of Okadaic Acid in Mice: Study of Lethality, Organ Damage, Distribution and Effects on Detoxifying Gene Expression." Toxins 5, no. 11: 2093-2108.



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