Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins
Previous Article in Journal
Shiga Toxin Type 2dact Displays Increased Binding to Globotriaosylceramide in vitro and Increased Lethality in Mice after Activation by Elastase
Previous Article in Special Issue
Clinical Marine Toxicology: A European Perspective for Clinical Toxicologists and Poison Centers
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2013, 5(11), 2093-2108; doi:10.3390/toxins5112093

Oral Toxicity of Okadaic Acid in Mice: Study of Lethality, Organ Damage, Distribution and Effects on Detoxifying Gene Expression

1
Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo 27002, Spain
2
Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo 27002, Spain
3
Departamento de Anatomía, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo 27002, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 September 2013 / Revised: 15 October 2013 / Accepted: 5 November 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1864 KB, uploaded 8 November 2013]   |  

Abstract

In vivo, after administration by gavage to mice and rats, okadaic acid has been reported to produce lesions in liver, small intestine and forestomach. Because several reports differ in the damage detected in different organs, and on okadaic acid distribution after consumption, we determined the toxicity of this compound after oral administration to mice. After 24 hours, histopathological examination showed necrotic foci and lipid vacuoles in the livers of intoxicated animals. By immunohistochemical analysis, we detected this toxin in the liver and kidneys of intoxicated animals. Okadaic acid induces oxidative stress and can be activated in vitro into reactive compounds by the post-mitochondrial S9 fraction, so we studied the okadaic effect on the gene expression of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes in liver. We observed a downregulation in the expression of these enzymes and a reduction of protein expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase 1 in intoxicated animals. View Full-Text
Keywords: okadaic acid; histopathology; diarrhea; immunohistochemistry; liver; superoxide dismutase 1; catalase; quantitative PCR; mice okadaic acid; histopathology; diarrhea; immunohistochemistry; liver; superoxide dismutase 1; catalase; quantitative PCR; mice
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Vieira, A.C.; Rubiolo, J.A.; López-Alonso, H.; Cifuentes, J.M.; Alfonso, A.; Bermúdez, R.; Otero, P.; Vieytes, M.R.; Vega, F.V.; Botana, L.M. Oral Toxicity of Okadaic Acid in Mice: Study of Lethality, Organ Damage, Distribution and Effects on Detoxifying Gene Expression. Toxins 2013, 5, 2093-2108.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top