Toxins 2012, 4(6), 405-429; doi:10.3390/toxins4060405

Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

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Received: 8 April 2012; in revised form: 16 May 2012 / Accepted: 25 May 2012 / Published: 4 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Toxins)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.
Keywords: Hemiptera; aphids; plant bug; Cry toxin; plant lectins; plant protease inhibitors; transgenic plants; insect resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chougule, N.P.; Bonning, B.C. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests. Toxins 2012, 4, 405-429.

AMA Style

Chougule NP, Bonning BC. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests. Toxins. 2012; 4(6):405-429.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C. 2012. "Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests." Toxins 4, no. 6: 405-429.

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