Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Toxins 2012, 4(11), 1261-1287; doi:10.3390/toxins4111261
Review

Shiga Toxins and the Pathophysiology of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Humans and Animals

,
,
 and *
Received: 17 September 2012; in revised form: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 2 November 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Properties of Well-Characterized Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [445 KB, uploaded 8 November 2012]
Abstract: Food-borne diseases are estimated at 76 million illnesses and 5000 deaths every year in the United States with the greatest burden on young children, the elderly and immunocompromised populations. The impact of efficient food distribution systems and a truly global food supply ensures that outbreaks, previously sporadic and contained locally, are far more widespread and emerging pathogens have far more frequent infection opportunities. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli is an emerging food- and water-borne pathogen family whose Shiga-like toxins induce painful hemorrhagic colitis with potentially lethal complications of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The clinical manifestations of Shiga toxin-induced HUS overlap with other related syndromes yet molecular mechanisms differ considerably. As discussed herein, understanding these differences and the novel properties of the toxins is imperative for clinical management decisions, design of appropriate animal models, and choices of adjunctive therapeutics. The emergence of new strains with rapidly aggressive virulence makes clinical and research initiatives in this field a high public health priority.
Keywords: Enterohemorrhagic E. coli; Shiga toxins; hemolytic uremic syndrome; animal models Enterohemorrhagic E. coli; Shiga toxins; hemolytic uremic syndrome; animal models
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Mayer, C.L.; Leibowitz, C.S.; Kurosawa, S.; Stearns-Kurosawa, D.J. Shiga Toxins and the Pathophysiology of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Humans and Animals. Toxins 2012, 4, 1261-1287.

AMA Style

Mayer CL, Leibowitz CS, Kurosawa S, Stearns-Kurosawa DJ. Shiga Toxins and the Pathophysiology of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Humans and Animals. Toxins. 2012; 4(11):1261-1287.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mayer, Chad L.; Leibowitz, Caitlin S.; Kurosawa, Shinichiro; Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J. 2012. "Shiga Toxins and the Pathophysiology of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Humans and Animals." Toxins 4, no. 11: 1261-1287.


Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert