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Advances in Deoxynivalenol Toxicity Mechanisms: The Brain as a Target
Laboratory of Physiology and Pathophysiology of Somatomotor and Autonomic Nervous System, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Escadrille Normandie-Niemen Avenue, Aix-Marseilles University, Marseilles 13397, France
Biomeostasis, Contract Research Organization, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Escadrille Normandie-Niemen Avenue, Marseilles 13397, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2012; in revised form: 18 October 2012 / Accepted: 19 October 2012 / Published: 1 November 2012
Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON), mainly produced by Fusarium fungi, and also commonly called vomitoxin, is a trichothecene mycotoxin. It is one of the most abundant trichothecenes which contaminate cereals consumed by farm animals and humans. The extent of cereal contamination is strongly associated with rainfall and moisture at the time of flowering and with grain storage conditions. DON consumption may result in intoxication, the severity of which is dose-dependent and may lead to different symptoms including anorexia, vomiting, reduced weight gain, neuroendocrine changes, immunological effects, diarrhea, leukocytosis, hemorrhage or circulatory shock. During the last two decades, many studies have described DON toxicity using diverse animal species as a model. While the action of the toxin on peripheral organs and tissues is well documented, data illustrating its effect on the brain are significantly less abundant. Yet, DON is known to affect the central nervous system. Recent studies have provided new evidence and detail regarding the action of the toxin on the brain. The purpose of the present review is to summarize critical studies illustrating this central action of the toxin and to suggest research perspectives in this field.
Keywords: mycotoxins; deoxynivalenol; hypothalamus; brainstem; anorexia; anapyrexia; cytokines; POMC; nesfatin-1
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Bonnet, M.S.; Roux, J.; Mounien, L.; Dallaporta, M.; Troadec, J.-D. Advances in Deoxynivalenol Toxicity Mechanisms: The Brain as a Target. Toxins 2012, 4, 1120-1138.
Bonnet MS, Roux J, Mounien L, Dallaporta M, Troadec J-D. Advances in Deoxynivalenol Toxicity Mechanisms: The Brain as a Target. Toxins. 2012; 4(11):1120-1138.
Bonnet, Marion S.; Roux, Julien; Mounien, Lourdes; Dallaporta, Michel; Troadec, Jean-Denis. 2012. "Advances in Deoxynivalenol Toxicity Mechanisms: The Brain as a Target." Toxins 4, no. 11: 1120-1138.