Next Article in Journal
Inhibitors of the Cellular Trafficking of Ricin
Previous Article in Journal
Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2012, 4(1), 1-14; doi:10.3390/toxins4010001

Investigations into the Toxicology of Spirolides, a Group of Marine Phycotoxins

AgResearch, Ruakura Research Centre, Private Bag, Hamilton 3123, New Zealand
National Research Council of Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, 1411 Oxford Street Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3Z1, Canada
Current address: Novaceutics Consulting, 6501 Oak St. Halifax, Nova Scotia B3L 1H5, Canada.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2011 / Revised: 13 December 2011 / Accepted: 23 December 2011 / Published: 30 December 2011
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [380 KB, uploaded 30 December 2011]   |  


Spirolides are marine phycotoxins produced by the dinoflagellates Alexandrium ostenfeldii and A. peruvianum. Here we report that 13-desmethyl spirolide C shows little cytotoxicity when incubated with various cultured mammalian cell lines. When administered to mice by intraperitoneal (ip) injection, however, this substance was highly toxic, with an LD50 value of 6.9 µg/kg body weight (BW), showing that such in vitro cytotoxicity tests are not appropriate for predicting the in vivo toxicity of this toxin. Four other spirolides, A, B, C, and 20-methyl spirolide G, were also toxic to mice by ip injection, with LD50 values of 37, 99, 8.0 and 8.0 µg/kg BW respectively. However, the acute toxicities of these compounds were lower by at least an order of magnitude when administration by gavage and their toxic effects were further diminished when administered with food. These results have implications for future studies of the toxicology of these marine toxins and the risk assessment of human exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: spirolides; marine phycotoxin; acute toxicity; Alexandrium ostenfeldii; seafood poisoning spirolides; marine phycotoxin; acute toxicity; Alexandrium ostenfeldii; seafood poisoning

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Munday, R.; Quilliam, M.A.; LeBlanc, P.; Lewis, N.; Gallant, P.; Sperker, S.A.; Ewart, H.S.; MacKinnon, S.L. Investigations into the Toxicology of Spirolides, a Group of Marine Phycotoxins. Toxins 2012, 4, 1-14.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top