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Toxins 2011, 3(12), 1569-1605; doi:10.3390/toxins3121569
Review

Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases

1,* , 2,* , 3
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Received: 8 November 2011; in revised form: 29 November 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published: 20 December 2011
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Abstract: Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed.
Keywords: black dead arm; Botryosphaeria canker; esca; Eutypa dieback; eutypiosis; grapevine trunk diseases; phytotoxins; Phaeomoniella; Phaeoacremonium; Fomitiporia black dead arm; Botryosphaeria canker; esca; Eutypa dieback; eutypiosis; grapevine trunk diseases; phytotoxins; Phaeomoniella; Phaeoacremonium; Fomitiporia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Andolfi, A.; Mugnai, L.; Luque, J.; Surico, G.; Cimmino, A.; Evidente, A. Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases. Toxins 2011, 3, 1569-1605.

AMA Style

Andolfi A, Mugnai L, Luque J, Surico G, Cimmino A, Evidente A. Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases. Toxins. 2011; 3(12):1569-1605.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Andolfi, Anna; Mugnai, Laura; Luque, Jordi; Surico, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio. 2011. "Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases." Toxins 3, no. 12: 1569-1605.



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