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Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases
Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, dell’Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Università 100, Portici I-80055, Italy
Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie, Sezione Protezione delle piante, Università degli Studi di Firenze, P.le delle Cascine 28, Firenze I-50144, Italy
Departament de Patologia Vegetal, IRTA, Ctra. de Cabrils km 2, Cabrils E-08348, Spain
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2011; in revised form: 29 November 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published: 20 December 2011
Abstract: Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed.
Keywords: black dead arm; Botryosphaeria canker; esca; Eutypa dieback; eutypiosis; grapevine trunk diseases; phytotoxins; Phaeomoniella; Phaeoacremonium; Fomitiporia
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Andolfi, A.; Mugnai, L.; Luque, J.; Surico, G.; Cimmino, A.; Evidente, A. Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases. Toxins 2011, 3, 1569-1605.
Andolfi A, Mugnai L, Luque J, Surico G, Cimmino A, Evidente A. Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases. Toxins. 2011; 3(12):1569-1605.
Andolfi, Anna; Mugnai, Laura; Luque, Jordi; Surico, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio. 2011. "Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases." Toxins 3, no. 12: 1569-1605.