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Toxins 2011, 3(9), 1089-1110; doi:10.3390/toxins3091089
Review

Chemical and Metabolic Aspects of Antimetabolite Toxins Produced by Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars

1,* , 2
,
2
 and
2
1 Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea “La Mayora” (IHSM-UMA-CSIC), Estación Experimental La Mayora, Algarrobo-Costa, Málaga 29750, Spain 2 Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea “La Mayora” (IHSM-UMA-CSIC), Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Unidad Asociada al CSIC, Campus de Teatinos, Málaga 29071, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2011 / Revised: 17 August 2011 / Accepted: 17 August 2011 / Published: 31 August 2011
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Abstract

Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium present in a wide variety of host plants where it causes diseases with economic impact. The symptoms produced by Pseudomonas syringae include chlorosis and necrosis of plant tissues, which are caused, in part, by antimetabolite toxins. This category of toxins, which includes tabtoxin, phaseolotoxin and mangotoxin, is produced by different pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae. These toxins are small peptidic molecules that target enzymes of amino acids’ biosynthetic pathways, inhibiting their activity and interfering in the general nitrogen metabolism. A general overview of the toxins’ chemistry, biosynthesis, activity, virulence and potential applications will be reviewed in this work.
Keywords: tabtoxin; phaseolotoxin; mangotoxin; virulence; arginine; ornithine; glutamine tabtoxin; phaseolotoxin; mangotoxin; virulence; arginine; ornithine; glutamine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Arrebola, E.; Cazorla, F.M.; Perez-García, A.; Vicente, A. Chemical and Metabolic Aspects of Antimetabolite Toxins Produced by Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars. Toxins 2011, 3, 1089-1110.

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