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Incidence of Fusarium Species and Mycotoxins in Silage Maize
Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station/Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zürich, Switzerland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2011; in revised form: 18 July 2011 / Accepted: 20 July 2011 / Published: 4 August 2011
Abstract: Maize is frequently infected by the Fusarium species producing mycotoxins. Numerous investigations have focused on grain maize, but little is known about the Fusarium species in the entire plant used for silage. Furthermore, mycotoxins persist during the ensiling process and thus endanger feed safety. In the current study, we analyzed 20 Swiss silage maize samples from growers’ fields for the incidence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins. The species spectrum was analyzed morphologically and mycotoxins were measured by LC-MS/MS. A pre-harvest visual disease rating showed few disease symptoms. In contrast, the infection rate of two-thirds of the harvest samples ranged from 25 to 75% and twelve different Fusarium species were isolated. The prevailing species were F. sporotrichioides, F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. No infection specificity for certain plant parts was observed. The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in each sample (ranging from 780 to 2990 µg kg−1). Other toxins detected in descending order were zearalenone, further trichothecenes (nivalenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin, acetylated DON) and fumonisins. A generalized linear regression model containing the three cropping factors harvest date, pre-precrop and seed treatment was established, to explain DON contamination of silage maize. Based on these findings, we suggest a European-wide survey on silage maize.
Keywords: silage maize; cropping factor; prediction; deoxynivalenol; animal feed
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MDPI and ACS Style
Eckard, S.; Wettstein, F.E.; Forrer, H.-R.; Vogelgsang, S. Incidence of Fusarium Species and Mycotoxins in Silage Maize. Toxins 2011, 3, 949-967.
Eckard S, Wettstein FE, Forrer H-R, Vogelgsang S. Incidence of Fusarium Species and Mycotoxins in Silage Maize. Toxins. 2011; 3(8):949-967.
Eckard, Sonja; Wettstein, Felix E.; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne. 2011. "Incidence of Fusarium Species and Mycotoxins in Silage Maize." Toxins 3, no. 8: 949-967.