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Expression Profiling of Non-Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus Mutants Obtained by 5-Azacytosine Treatment or Serial Mycelial Transfer
Southern Regional Research Center, ARS/USDA, 1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70124, USA
Department of Biology, 1 Drexel Dr., Box 85B, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA 70125, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 May 2011; in revised form: 19 July 2011 / Accepted: 26 July 2011 / Published: 2 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aflatoxins
Abstract: Aflatoxins are carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Previous studies found that repeated serial mycelial transfer or treatment of A. parasiticus with 5-azacytidine produced colonies with a fluffy phenotype and inability to produce aflatoxins. To understand how these treatments affect expression of genes involved in aflatoxin production and development, we carried out expressed sequence tag (EST)-based microarray assays to identify genes in treated clones that are differentially expressed compared to the wild-type. Expression of 183 genes was significantly dysregulated. Of these, 38 had at least two-fold or lower expression compared to the untreated control and only two had two-fold or higher expression. The most frequent change was downregulation of genes predicted to encode membrane-bound proteins. Based on this result we hypothesize that the treatments cause changes in the structure of cellular and organelle membranes that prevent normal development and aflatoxin biosynthesis.
Keywords: aflatoxin; microarray; 5-azacytidine; Aspergillus parasiticus; secondary metabolism; fluffy phenotype
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wilkinson, J.R.; Kale, S.P.; Bhatnagar, D.; Yu, J.; Ehrlich, K.C. Expression Profiling of Non-Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus Mutants Obtained by 5-Azacytosine Treatment or Serial Mycelial Transfer. Toxins 2011, 3, 932-948.
Wilkinson JR, Kale SP, Bhatnagar D, Yu J, Ehrlich KC. Expression Profiling of Non-Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus Mutants Obtained by 5-Azacytosine Treatment or Serial Mycelial Transfer. Toxins. 2011; 3(8):932-948.
Wilkinson, Jeffrey R.; Kale, Shubha P.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C. 2011. "Expression Profiling of Non-Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus Mutants Obtained by 5-Azacytosine Treatment or Serial Mycelial Transfer." Toxins 3, no. 8: 932-948.