Toxins 2011, 3(1), 43-62; doi:10.3390/toxins3010043
Article

Changes in Astrocyte Shape Induced by Sublytic Concentrations of the Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin Pneumolysin Still Require Pore-Forming Capacity

1 DFG Membrane, Cytoskeleton Interaction Group, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology & Rudolf Virchow Center for Experimental Medicine, University of Würzburg, Versbacherstr. 9, 97078 Würzburg, Germany 2 Division of Infection and Immunity, Level 2, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK 3 Rudolf Virchow Center for Experimental Medicine, University of Würzburg, Versbacherstr. 9, 97078 Würzburg, Germany These authors contributed to this paper equally.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 November 2010; in revised form: 30 December 2010 / Accepted: 4 January 2011 / Published: 7 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurotoxins of Biological Origin)
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Abstract: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common pathogen that causes various infections, such as sepsis and meningitis. A major pathogenic factor of S. pneumoniae is the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pneumolysin. It produces cell lysis at high concentrations and apoptosis at lower concentrations. We have shown that sublytic amounts of pneumolysin induce small GTPase-dependent actin cytoskeleton reorganization and microtubule stabilization in human neuroblastoma cells that are manifested by cell retraction and changes in cell shape. In this study, we utilized a live imaging approach to analyze the role of pneumolysin’s pore-forming capacity in the actin-dependent cell shape changes in primary astrocytes. After the initial challenge with the wild-type toxin, a permeabilized cell population was rapidly established within 20–40 minutes. After the initial rapid permeabilization, the size of the permeabilized population remained unchanged and reached a plateau. Thus, we analyzed the non-permeabilized (non-lytic) population, which demonstrated retraction and shape changes that were inhibited by actin depolymerization. Despite the non-lytic nature of pneumolysin treatment, the toxin’s lytic capacity remained critical for the initiation of cell shape changes. The non-lytic pneumolysin mutants W433F-pneumolysin and delta6-pneumolysin, which bind the cell membrane with affinities similar to that of the wild-type toxin, were not able to induce shape changes. The initiation of cell shape changes and cell retraction by the wild-type toxin were independent of calcium and sodium influx and membrane depolarization, which are known to occur following cellular challenge and suggested to result from the ion channel-like properties of the pneumolysin pores. Excluding the major pore-related phenomena as the initiation mechanism of cell shape changes, the existence of a more complex relationship between the pore-forming capacity of pneumolysin and the actin cytoskeleton reorganization is suggested.
Keywords: pneumolysin; pore formation; cytoskeleton

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MDPI and ACS Style

Förtsch, C.; Hupp, S.; Ma, J.; Mitchell, T.J.; Maier, E.; Benz, R.; Iliev, A.I. Changes in Astrocyte Shape Induced by Sublytic Concentrations of the Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin Pneumolysin Still Require Pore-Forming Capacity. Toxins 2011, 3, 43-62.

AMA Style

Förtsch C, Hupp S, Ma J, Mitchell TJ, Maier E, Benz R, Iliev AI. Changes in Astrocyte Shape Induced by Sublytic Concentrations of the Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin Pneumolysin Still Require Pore-Forming Capacity. Toxins. 2011; 3(1):43-62.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Förtsch, Christina; Hupp, Sabrina; Ma, Jiangtao; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Maier, Elke; Benz, Roland; Iliev, Asparouh I. 2011. "Changes in Astrocyte Shape Induced by Sublytic Concentrations of the Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin Pneumolysin Still Require Pore-Forming Capacity." Toxins 3, no. 1: 43-62.

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