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Studies in the Use of Magnetic Microspheres for Immunoaffinity Extraction of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins from Shellfish
Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast, BT9 5AG, Northern Ireland, UK
Division of Bacteriology, Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 November 2010; in revised form: 10 December 2010 / Accepted: 14 December 2010 / Published: 4 January 2011
Abstract: Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a potentially fatal human health condition caused by the consumption of shellfish containing high levels of PSP toxins. Toxin extraction from shellfish and from algal cultures for use as standards and analysis by alternative analytical monitoring methods to the mouse bioassay is extensive and laborious. This study investigated whether a selected MAb antibody could be coupled to a novel form of magnetic microsphere (hollow glass magnetic microspheres, brand name Ferrospheres-N) and whether these coated microspheres could be utilized in the extraction of low concentrations of the PSP toxin, STX, from potential extraction buffers and spiked mussel extracts. The feasibility of utilizing a mass of 25 mg of Ferrospheres-N, as a simple extraction procedure for STX from spiked sodium acetate buffer, spiked PBS buffer and spiked mussel extracts was determined. The effects of a range of toxin concentrations (20–300 ng/mL), incubation times and temperature on the capability of the immuno-capture of the STX from the spiked mussel extracts were investigated. Finally, the coated microspheres were tested to determine their efficiency at extracting PSP toxins from naturally contaminated mussel samples. Toxin recovery after each experiment was determined by HPLC analysis. This study on using a highly novel immunoaffinity based extraction procedure, using STX as a model, has indicated that it could be a convenient alternative to conventional extraction procedures used in toxin purification prior to sample analysis.
Keywords: immunoaffinity; paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP); magnetic microspheres; Ferrospheres; saxitoxin
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Devlin, R.; Campbell, K.; Kawatsu, K.; Elliott, C. Studies in the Use of Magnetic Microspheres for Immunoaffinity Extraction of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins from Shellfish. Toxins 2011, 3, 1-16.
Devlin R, Campbell K, Kawatsu K, Elliott C. Studies in the Use of Magnetic Microspheres for Immunoaffinity Extraction of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins from Shellfish. Toxins. 2011; 3(1):1-16.
Devlin, Raymond; Campbell, Katrina; Kawatsu, Kentaro; Elliott, Christopher. 2011. "Studies in the Use of Magnetic Microspheres for Immunoaffinity Extraction of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins from Shellfish." Toxins 3, no. 1: 1-16.